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More than 2.5 million Sudanese have been killed in the 21st century in brutal conflicts between north and south, in Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile, and in other regions. Although the north-south civil war ended, ultimately leading to South Sudan's independence in 2009, violence has continued and civilians remain at risk. Currently, the Early Warning Project considers Sudan to be one of the highest-risk countries for a new mass killing. View our resources on the 2003-05 violence and on the humanitarian crisis on the border with South Sudan.