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India, the world’s largest democracy with over 1.4 billion people, is at risk of mass atrocities. Since coming to power in 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi and the political Bharatiya Janata Party have promoted a Hindu nationalist ideology which depicts India’s minority Muslim population as a threat to India's security and its national identity. This ideology has also made other religious minorities and traditionally excluded groups, such as Christians and Dalits, vulnerable to violence and discrimination. Warning signs for mass atrocities include passing discriminatory laws, rampant hate speech and incitement to violence—including by political and religious leaders—and a rise in violent attacks. These acts are taking place alongside attacks on civil society, diminishing press freedom, and a culture of impunity. Learn more about the risks to religious minorities and other vulnerable groups.

  • This brief details risk factors for mass atrocities in India, where rising discrimination and dehumanization of religious minority communities puts millions under threat. The brief focuses in particular on India’s minority Muslim population of 200 million people. The brief offers policy options that India and concerned governments like the US can take to mitigate these risks.

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  • This downloadable flyer provides background information on warning sings for mass atrocities in India and who is at risk.

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  • Our assessment, from the Early Warning Project, estimates the risk of mass killing in India over the next year.

  • Human rights attorney Dr. Waris Husain discusses the risks, drivers, and dynamics of violence against civilians in India.