While posted in Berlin, American diplomat Raymond Geist worked within a restrictive immigration system to help save as many victims of Nazi persecution as he could, including Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud. Another diplomat, Colonel José Arturo Castellanos of El Salvador and his first secretary, Jewish businessman George Mandel-Mantello, defied government instructions by providing citizenship certificates to thousands of European Jews who had no connection to El Salvador—most didn’t even speak Spanish. Join us as we commemorate World Refugee Day and honor diplomats who dared to take great risks to offer refuge and save lives.
Dr. Edna Friedberg, Historian, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Dr. Lisa Leff, Director of the Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum