Prejudice against or hatred of Jews—known as antisemitism—has plagued the world for more than 2,000 years. The Holocaust, the state-sponsored persecution and murder of European Jews between 1933 and 1945 by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, is history’s most extreme example of antisemitism. Yet even in the aftermath of the Holocaust, antisemitism remains a continuing threat. Manifestations of this hatred appear in literature, art, film, speeches, legislation, and on the Internet, as well as in acts of violence.
One of the most notorious and widely circulated examples of antisemitic literature is the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. It purports to be the report of a secret meeting of Jewish leaders planning their domination of the world. Translated into many languages and distributed throughout the world, this document has been thoroughly and repeatedly discredited. Despite this fact, the Protocols continues to circulate today, both in print and online.
The following bibliography was compiled to guide readers to materials on the history of antisemitism and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion that are in the Library’s collection. It is not meant to be exhaustive. Annotations are provided to help the user determine the item’s focus, and call numbers for the Museum’s Library are given in parentheses following each citation. Those unable to visit might be able to find these works in a nearby public library or acquire them through interlibrary loan. Follow the “Find in a library near you” link in each citation and enter your zip code at the Open WorldCat search screen. The results of that search indicate all libraries in your area that own that particular title. Talk to your local librarian for assistance.
History of Antisemitism
Almog, Shmuel, editor. Antisemitism Through the Ages. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1988. (DS 145 .A598 1988) [Find in a library near you]
Collection of essays, originally presented at a conference held in 1978, that discuss specific incidents and historical manifestations of antisemitism. Produced in conjunction with the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Berger, David, editor. History and Hate: The Dimensions of Anti-Semitism. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1997. (DS 145 .H56 1997) [Find in a library near you]
Presents a general overview of the history and causes of antisemitism. Includes papers originally delivered at a conference sponsored by the Anti-Defamation League and the Joseph and Ceil Mazer Institute for Research and Advanced Studies in Judaica in New York.
Brustein, William I. Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe Before the Holocaust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. (DS 146 .E8 B78 2003) [Find in a library near you]
Examines European antisemitism in the decades before World War II by analyzing newspaper articles concerning Jews and antisemitic acts. Describes the political, economic, racial, and religious manifestations of popular antisemitism in France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, and Romania. Includes statistical charts and a bibliography.
Chanes, Jerome A. Antisemitism: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2004. (DS 145 .C464 2004) [Find in a library near you]
Reproduces a variety of sources to provide a history and timeline of antisemitism from antiquity through the Holocaust. Includes biographical sketches of key individuals, a country-by-country survey of Jewish communities, a glossary of terms, and an annotated bibliography of print and online resources. Part of the Contemporary World Issues series.
Cohen, Susan Sarah, editor. Antisemitism: An Annotated Bibliography. Munich: K. G. Saur, 1987-. (Reference Z 6374 .A56 A57 1987) [Find in a library near you]
Annual annotated listing of recent publications on antisemitism from around the world. Produced by the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Fineberg, Michael, Shimon Samuels, and Mark Weitzman, editors. Antisemitism: The Generic Hatred: Essays in Memory of Simon Wiesenthal. London: Vallentine Mitchell, 2007. (DS 145 .A6443 2007) [Find in a library near you]
Presents 31 essays exploring the facets of contemporary antisemitism worldwide as well as related topics, such as Christian-Jewish relations after the Holocaust. Includes 18 tributes to Simon Wiesenthal written by world leaders shortly after his death in 2005.
Herf, Jeffrey, editor. Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism in Historical Perspective: Convergence and Divergence. London: Routledge, 2007. (DS 145 .A623 2007) [Find in a library near you]
Collects 13 essays that explore the similarities and differences between antisemitism and anti-Zionism throughout the twentieth century. Previously published as a special issue of The Journal of Israeli History.
Katz, Jacob. From Prejudice to Destruction: Anti-Semitism, 1700-1933. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980. (DS 145 .K279 1980) [Find in a library near you]
Discusses the evolution of negative views towards Jews from the eighteenth century to the antisemitic policies of the Nazis. Includes discussions of religious, philosophical, and economic aspects of the rise of antisemitism.
Kertzer, David I., editor. Old Demons, New Debates: Anti-Semitism in the West. Teaneck, NJ: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 2005. (DS 145 .O37 2005) [Find in a library near you]
Presents 15 essays exploring the recent surge in antisemitism worldwide, and how these forms of hatred draw upon historical anti-Jewish and anti-Zionist influences. Individual essays explore antisemitism in particular countries as well as the ways this hatred manifests itself in Holocaust denial. Includes endnotes and an index.
Lazare, Bernard. Antisemitism: Its History and Causes. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995. (DS 145 .L413 1995) [Find in a library near you]
Translation of the 1894 book detailing the history of antisemitism from ancient times to the nineteenth century. Demonstrates a pre-Holocaust understanding of antisemitism in the world. The text of this book is also available online through Fordham University (external link).
Levy, Richard S., editor. Antisemitism in the Modern World: An Anthology of Texts. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1990. (DS 145 .A58 1990) [Find in a library near you]
Anthology of key primary sources documenting the history of anti-Jewish writings from the Middle Ages through the Holocaust. Includes a chronology of important events as well as a bibliographic essay with suggestions for further reading.
Levy, Richard S. Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2005. (DS 146 .E8 A58 2005) [Find in a library near you]
Two-volume reference work with over 600 articles on key figures and events in the history of antisemitism. Entries include bibliographies and cross-references to related articles.
Litvinoff, Barnet. The Burning Bush: Anti-Semitism and World History. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1988. (DS 145 .L459 1988) [Find in a library near you]
Examines relations between Jews and non-Jews in Europe from Roman times to the present. Traces antisemitism in the interactions between Jewish communities and their neighbors. Includes bibliography and index.
Michael, Robert, editor. Dictionary of Antisemitism from the Earliest Times to the Present. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, 2007. (DS 145 .M465 2007) [Find in a library near you]
Comprehensive reference work containing over 2,500 entries summarizing important events, individuals, publications, and other topics in the history of antisemitism. Includes suggested titles and Web sites for further reading on most topics.
Parkes, James William. Antisemitism. London: Valentine, Mitchell, 1963. (DS 145 .P27 1963) [Find in a library near you]
Overview of the root causes and development of modern antisemitic thought in Western Europe, written by a noted historian and Anglican minister.
Perry, Marvin, and Frederick M. Schweitzer. Antisemitism: Myth and Hate from Antiquity to the Present. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. (DS 145 .P415 2002) [Find in a library near you]
Analyzes the origins of antisemitic ideas and beliefs and how they have been perpetuated over the centuries. Discusses antisemitic rumors and fabrications used to incite hatred and violence and also addresses Holocaust denial. Includes endnotes and index.
Poliakov, Leon. The History of Anti-Semitism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003. (DS 145 .P4613 2003) [Find in a library near you]
Explores the history of antisemitism from antiquity to 1933. Each volume deals with a specific time period and discusses the historical roots of religious antisemitism, the persistence of these beliefs among intellectuals, and the assimilation of Jews. Each volume includes endnotes and index.
Rosenbaum, Ron, editor. Those Who Forget the Past: The Question of Anti-Semitism. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2004. (DS 145 .T445 2004) [Find in a library near you]
Compiles essays by leading scholars and intellectuals that examine the history of antisemitism and the rise of anti-Jewish rhetoric and violence in recent years.
Tanja, Jaap. Fifty Questions on Antisemitism. Amsterdam: Anne Frank House, 2005. (DS 145 .F54 2005) [Find in a library near you]
Provides general information about antisemitism, Jewish history, and Judaism, presented as answers to frequently asked questions. Includes numerous illustrations, a glossary, and bibliography.
Weinberg, Meyer. Because They Were Jews: A History of Antisemitism. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. (DS 145 .W45 1986) [Find in a library near you]
Provides an overview of the development of antisemitism in twelve countries, including Germany, the United States, Russia, Poland, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Argentina. Includes a chapter summarizing the similarities and differences of antisemitic thought among different nationalities, as well as a bibliographic essay highlighting sources for further study.
Wistrich, Robert S. Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred. New York: Pantheon Books, 1991. (DS 145 .W553 1991) [Find in a library near you]
Chronicles worldwide antisemitism, from pre-Christian times through the Holocaust. Includes photographs of antisemitic propaganda. Companion volume to the television series The Longest Hatred.
Explore our comprehensive entries on the events, people, and places of the Holocaust.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Ben-Itto, Hadassa. The Lie That Wouldn’t Die: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. London: Vallentine Mitchell, 2005. (DS 145 .P7 B36 2005) [Find in a library near you]
Presents the history of the Protocols as researched and dissected in various international court cases. Uses expert testimonies, exhibits, materials and verdicts from the trials to demonstrate the complexity of the false accusations. Includes illustrations, bibliography and an index.
Bernstein, Herman. The Truth about “The Protocols of Zion”: A Complete Exposure. New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1971. (DS 145 .P7 B473 1971) [Find in a library near you]
Collects texts and articles documenting the Protocols as a forgery. Includes primary source documents that expose the document as a forgery as well as works that serve as the basis of the Protocols.
Boym, Svetlana. “Conspiracy Theories and Literary Ethics: Umberto Eco, Danilo Kris and The Protocols of Zion.” Comparative Literature 51, no. 2 (1999): 97-122. (Subject File) [Find in a library near you]
Traces the Protocols from its origins as plagiarism and forgery through its development as modern conspiracy literature. Analyzes the Protocols as both a false conspiracy and as conspiracy theory literature.
Bronner, Stephen E. A Rumor About the Jews: Reflections on Antisemitism and The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. (DS 145 .P7 B76 2000) [Find in a library near you]
Discusses the history of the Protocols and its widespread publication and dissemination. Presents information on the impact of the forgery on modern antisemitism. Includes endnotes and an index.
Cohn, Norman. Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World Conspiracy and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. London: Serif, 1996. (DS 145 .P7 C6 1996) [Find in a library near you]
Contextualizes the dissemination and reception of the Protocols within Europe and throughout the world. Highlights the role of Jewish conspiracy allegations in the years before the Holocaust and their impact on the victimization of the Jews.
Curtiss, John Shelton. An Appraisal of the Protocols of Zion. New York: Columbia University Press, 1942. (DS 145 .P7 C87 1942) [Find in a library near you]
Summarizes the evidence that the Protocols were a forgery, including the results of the 1933 trials of Swiss Nazis in which the authenticity of the text was thoroughly debunked by the prosecution.
De Michelis, Cesare G. The Non-Existent Manuscript: A Study of the Protocols of the Sages of Zion. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2004. (DS 145 .P7 D4613 2004) [Find in a library near you]
Reproduces and analyzes the original Russian text of the Protocols to investigate the charges contained in the document. Discusses the subtext, origins, and philosophy of the Protocols, while comparing modern and historical antisemitism in Russia and Italy.
Eisner, Will. The Plot: The Secret Story of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005. (DS 145 .P7 E37 2005) [Find in a library near you]
Graphic novel recounting the history of the Protocols through illustrations and a chronological story line. Includes reference notes and a bibliography.
Fox, Frank. “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and the Shadowy World of Elie de Cyon.” East European Jewish Affairs 27, no. 1 (1997): 3-22. (DS 135 .R92 S65) [Find in a library near you]
Narrates the life and antisemitic work of Elie de Cyon and reports on his connections and possible role as primary author of the Protocols.
Green, Ronald S. “Scholars Contending with Delusional Ideology: Historians, Antisemitic Lore, and The Protocols.” Shofar 18, no. 2 (2002): 82-100. (BM 1 .S418 v.18) [Find in a library near you]
Traces the scholarly consideration of the Protocols from the early twentieth century through the present day.
Hagemeister, Michael. "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: Between History and Fiction" (external link). New German Critique 103 (Winter 2008): 83-95. (PT 1 .N46 2008) [Find in a library near you]
Examination of the mix of fact and fiction that lead to the publishing of The Protocols of Zion, an important piece of Antisemitic literature. Includes footnotes and several cartoon reprints.
Jacobs, Steven L., and Mark Weitzman. Dismantling the Big Lie: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Los Angeles: Simon Wiesenthal Center, 2003. (DS 145 .P7 J33 2003) [Find in a library near you]
Critiques and responds to each accusation presented in the Protocols. Highlights themes and patterns that run throughout the text and refutes these charges. Includes a bibliography and an appendix.
Kilgore, Harley Martin. A Cruel and Vicious Forgery: An Official Exposure of “The Protocols of Zion.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1948. (Rare DS 145 .P7 K55 1948) [Find in a library near you]
Presents the text of a speech given by Senator Harley M. Kilgore of West Virginia on the Senate floor, June 1, 1948, in which he sought to summarize in a public forum the evidence that the Protocols was a forgery.
Larsson, Göran. Fact or Fraud?: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Jerusalem: AMI Jerusalem Center for Biblical Studies and Research, 1994. (DS 145 .P7 L37 1994) [Find in a library near you]
Analyzes the origins and impact of the Protocols in the twentieth century. Profiles the lasting effect of the Protocols and its publication and popularity throughout the world. Includes illustrations.
Segel, Binjamin W. A Lie and a Libel: The History of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995. (DS 145 .P7 S43 1995) [Find in a library near you]
Thorough history and analysis of the Protocols and the violent anti-Jewish pogroms it has inspired throughout history. Includes a bibliography, index, and a timeline of events related to the publication of the tracts.
Tazbir, Janusz. “Conspiracy Theories and the Reception of The Protocols of The Elders of Zion in Poland.” Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry 11 (1998): 171-182. (DS 135 .P6 P56) [Find in a library near you]
Discusses the tradition of conspiracy theory in European and Polish literature and the relation to political unrest and turbulence. Analyzes the reception of the Protocols by Polish society in the context of this tradition, drawing comparisons with treatment of the Jesuits and Freemasons.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws. Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Fabricated “Historic” Document (external link). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964. (KF 31 .J845 1964) [Find in a library near you]
Presents the findings and Congressional account declaring the Protocols an antisemitic forgery. Includes references to sources consulted and information reviewed by the Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security.
Wolf, Lucien. The Myth of the Jewish Menace in World Affairs, or, the Truth about the Forged Protocols of the Elders of Zion. New York: Macmillan, 1921. (Rare DS 145 .P7 W65 1921) [Find in a library near you]
Presents three essays by a prominent scholar in which the author summarizes the evidence that the Protocols was a forged tract.
Film and Video
Bloomstein, Rex, and Robert S. Wistrich. The Longest Hatred [videorecording]. Boston: WGBH Boston Video, 1993. (Video Collection) [Find in a library near you]
Traces antisemitism from its earliest manifestations in antiquity to contemporary outbreaks in Germany, Russia, and elsewhere. Also considers Arab-Israeli relations. See also the companion book to this series.
Provides background information on antisemitism in Germany, with a focus on the development of anti-Jewish thought in the late 1800s. Includes links to entries on antisemitism during other time periods.
Sketches the history and impact of the Protocols throughout the twentieth century.
Ask at the reference desk to see the following subject files for newspaper and periodical articles:
- Protocols of the Elders of Zion
When searching library catalogs or other electronic search tools for materials on antisemitism and the Protocols, use the following Library of Congress subject headings to retrieve the most relevant citations:
- Anti-Jewish propaganda
- Jews Persecutions
- Protocols of the wise men of Zion