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In one of the worst campaigns of mass slaughter since World War II, more than 2.5 million civilians have been killed in Sudan over decades of brutal conflict between north and south, in Darfur in the west, and in other regions.

Since the 1950s, the Arab-dominated government of Sudan, centered in the capital Khartoum, has tried to impose its control on the country’s African minorities living along the nation’s periphery. The result has been a deadly mix of ethnic, religious, and politically motivated conflicts.

Though the north-south civil war is over and South Sudan gained its independence in July 2011, violence has continued. Citizens in Darfur and the border areas between the two countries remain at risk, and violence in South Sudan threatens to destabilize the newly independent country.