Seeking justice for war crimes can involve more than a court passing judgment. Fostering healing for the victims, and for society at large, is also important.
In the aftermath of the Holocaust, German government authorities agreed to pay billions of dollars of financial compensation to victims and victims’ families for lives and property lost, but this method of redress remains unusual.
In their search for justice and healing for themselves and society, survivors of the Khmer Rouge’s reign have sought reparations. But in Cambodia, where tight budgets offer little chance of financial amends, the court has mandated “collective and moral reparations”—projects such as memorials to victims, psychological services, and information centers at killing sites.
After consulting widely and soliciting civil party applications, the ECCC and its Victims Support Section are enabled, with the guilty verdict rendered in August 2014 in Case 002.1, to work closely with civil society and move forward with 13 fully funded reparations projects.
As the trial in Case 002.2 continues this year, the court’s civil party lead co-lawyers are consulting with civil society groups to compile a new set of projects to seek funding for and implement in the event of a guilty verdict.
Memorialization and Documentation
The Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC–Cam) is the nation’s primary archive of the Khmer Rouge era. Founded in 1994 with support from international institutions, it has gathered millions of documents, artifacts, and files from the Cambodian government, other institutions, and private donors. The DC–Cam staff, led by Khmer Rouge–era survivor Youk Chhang, rescues and cares for this evidence to help others search for the truth of what happened to them and their families, to provide documentary evidence to the Khmer Rouge tribunal, and to teach Cambodians about their nation’s history.
Survivor Services, including Psychological Counseling
In the United States, the Applied Social Research Institute of Cambodia and the Center for Justice and Accountability helped nearly 50 US survivors gain court recognition. In her 2013 testimony, Sophany Bay, a survivor, civil party, and mental health counselor, brought attention to the long-term psychological and physical suffering—often referred to as post-traumatic stress syndrome—of survivors and their families. Bay, who lost three children during the regime, continues to speak about her own loss and provide counseling in her San Jose community.
During the Khmer Rouge’s reign, traditional Cambodian music and dance were suppressed in favor of propaganda songs and skits meant to reinforce political ideals. Western-inspired film and pop music, considered decadent and corrupt, were rooted out. Musicians hid their talents or risked death. The 2014 documentary Don’t Think I’ve Forgotten: Cambodia’s Lost Rock and Roll traces the country’s vibrant pop music scene through the early 1970s to its destruction by the Khmer Rouge.
Today, Cambodia teems with cultural revival, demonstrating that the Khmer Rouge did not succeed in eradicating a way of life. Members of the Royal Ballet perform intricate dances that date to the ancient Khmer Empire. Phnom Penh hosts a vibrant music and filmmaking scene. Some of the movies recount the years of oppression; others just entertain.
Religion is also firmly reestablished. The country is dotted with newly built or repaired Buddhist temples. People of all ages burn incense and say prayers before images of the Buddha and flock to the temples for religious festivals. Monks officiate at weddings, funerals, and other major events. Fortune-telling and astrology, long important in Cambodian life, have made a comeback. Islam, the faith of the Cham minority, has also seen a rebirth.