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Timeline of Events

Krakow Ghetto Established

Jews at forced labor constructing the wall around the Krakow ghetto. Krakow, Poland, 1941.

Jews at forced labor constructing the wall around the Krakow ghetto. Krakow, Poland, 1941. —Instytut Pamieci Narodowej

March 3, 1941

From March 3–20, 1941, German authorities announce, establish, and seal a ghetto in Krakow, Poland. Between 15,000 and 20,000 Jews are forced to live within the ghetto boundaries, which are enclosed by barbed-wire fences and, in places, by a stone wall.

A Jewish resistance movement existed in the Krakow ghetto from the time the ghetto was established in 1941. Its leaders focused underground operations initially on supporting education and welfare organizations.