During the conflict in Bosnia between 1992 and 1995, an estimated 100,000 people were killed, 80 percent of whom were Bosnian Muslims—known as Bosniaks. In July 1995, Bosnian Serb forces killed as many as 8,000 Bosniaks from Srebrenica. It was the largest massacre in Europe since the Holocaust.
Between 1975 and 1979, Cambodia’s Khmer Rouge subjected the country’s citizens to forced labor, persecution, and execution in the name of the regime’s ruthless agrarian ideology. Almost two million people—approximately one third of the country’s population—died in the “killing fields.”
What began in 2013 as political violence initiated by rebel groups opposing the government of the Central African Republic has taken on a religious dimension, and groups and individuals are now being targeted because of their Christian or Muslim identity.
Over the last two decades, more than five million civilians have died in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in a succession of complex wars and conflicts. Most have died from preventable diseases as a result of the collapse of infrastructure, lack of food and health care, and displacement.
In just 100 days, from April to July 1994, between 500,000 and one million Rwandans, predominantly Tutsis, were massacred when a Hutu extremist–led government launched a plan to wipe out the country’s entire Tutsi minority and any others who opposed their policies.
In July 2011, South Sudan became the world’s newest country after its citizens voted for independence from Sudan. The country faces great challenges as it seeks to build its democratic institutions, overcome a history of internal conflict based on ethnicity, and resolve ongoing tensions with Sudan over the region’s oil resources.
Since the 1950s, the Arab-dominated government of Sudan has tried to impose its control on African minorities on the country’s periphery. More than 2.5 million civilians have been killed in a succession of brutal conflicts—between north and south, in Darfur in the west, and in other regions.