The Nazi rise to power brought an end to the Weimar Republic, a parliamentary democracy established in Germany after World War I. Following the appointment of Adolf Hitler as chancellor on January 30, 1933, the Nazi state (also referred to as the Third Reich) quickly became a regime in which Germans enjoyed no guaranteed basic rights. Culture, the economy, education, and law all came under Nazi control. Extensive propaganda was used to spread the regime's goals and ideals.
Hitler had the final say in both domestic legislation and German foreign policy. Nazi foreign policy was guided by the racist belief that Germany was biologically destined to expand eastward by military force. In the context of this ideological war, the Nazis planned and implemented the Holocaust, the mass murder of the Jews, who were considered the primary "racial" enemy. Open criticism of the regime was suppressed, but Hitler's government was popular with most Germans. The Allies defeated Nazi Germany and forced a German surrender on May 8, 1945.