Trained as an elementary school teacher, Julius Streicher (1885–1946) was an early member of the Nazi party and in 1923 founded the virulently antisemitic and racist newspaper, Der Stuermer. Streicher was a leading organizer of Nazi Germany's first official nationwide boycott of Jewish businesses in April 1933. Although Streicher had lost credibility in party circles by 1940, he continued to edit and distribute his antisemitic propaganda newspaper to hundreds of thousands of Germans. For his influential role in inciting hatred and violence, Streicher was indicted on count four, crimes against humanity. Streicher was found guilty and sentenced to death. He was hanged on October 16, 1946.