One-Day Symposium, January 13, 2005
This symposium focuses on Holocaust-related trials from 1945 until today. Panelists provide comparative analysis of trials involving perpetrators, collaborators, and Holocaust deniers, as well as examine the law in different countries and how it affected trial outcomes. The symposium concludes with a roundtable discussion of challenges and lessons for today, when Holocaust-related criminal trials are still ongoing and the world is faced with continuing crimes against humanity in the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Sudan, and elsewhere.
The organization of this symposium has been supported by the Helena Rubinstein Foundation, the Frances Ziegler Endowment Fund, and the Tamkin Foundation.
Paul A. Shapiro, Director, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM)
- Paul A. Shapiro is Director, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, USHMM. He served earlier as Assistant to the Museum Director for Special Projects. Before joining the Museum, Mr. Shapiro was involved for over a decade in the development of the Museum’s archival collections. A specialist in the Holocaust in Romania and a former editor of the Journal of International Affairs (New York) and Problems of Communism (Washington), Mr. Shapiro holds degrees in government, international affairs, and history from Harvard University and Columbia University.
History on Trial: My Day in Court with David Irving—Deborah E. Lipstadt, Director, Rabbi Donald A.Tam Institute for Jewish Studies, and Dorot Professor of Modern Jewish and Holocaust Studies, Emory University, Atlanta; Member, United States Holocaust Memorial Council (USHMC); and Member and Chair Emerita, Academic Committee, USHMC
- Derborah E. Lipstadt is author of Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust (1986, 1993) and Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory (1993), which was the first comprehensive study of attempts to deny the Holocaust and won the 1994 National Jewish Book Award. Her most recent book, History on Trial: My Day in Court with David Irving (2005), describes the case David J.C. Irving v. Penguin Books Ltd and Deborah Lipstadt, tried in London from January to April 2000.
SESSION I: Holocaust-Related War Crimes Trials: New Research
Moderator—Elisabeth Yavnai, Director,Visiting Scholars Program, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, USHMM
The Holocaust and War Crimes Trials:The State of Research—Juergen Matthaeus, Senior Applied Research Scholar, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, USHMM
- Juergen Matthaeus is co-author of Educated to Murder Jews? The Ideological Training of the SS, Police and Waffen-SS in the Context of the Final Solution (published in German, 2003); co-editor of Holocaust Responses (2004); and contributor to Christopher Browning’s The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939–March 1942 (2004), which recently won the National Jewish Book Award.
Redeeming the Nomos in the Age of Atrocity: 'Euthanasia' Trials in West Germany, 1945–1953—Michael S. Bryant, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice and History, University of Toledo, Ohio
- Michael S. Bryant is author of The Revenge of Power: U.S. and West German ‘Euthanasia’ Trials, 1945–1953 (2005). He is currently researching the treatment of homicidal assaults on the Jewish population of Baden-Württemberg by German law enforcement authorities during the Holocaust.
Collaboration on Trial: War Crimes Trials in Ukraine—Tanja Penter, 2004–2005 Pearl Resnick Postdoctoral Fellow, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, USHMM, and Research Fellow, Institute for Social Movements, Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany
- Tanja Penter has published two monographs: Odessa, 1917: Revolution on the Periphery (2000) and Universities in the Ukraine: History, Structure, and Perspectives (2001). As the 2004–2005 Pearl Resnick Postdoctoral Fellow at the Center, Dr. Penter is conducting research for her project “Collaboration during the Holocaust: Post-War Trials in Ukraine.”
The Limits of the Law: The Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial in Germany—Rebecca Wittmann, Assistant Professor of History, University of Toronto, Canada, and former Fellow, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, USHMM
- Rebecca Wittmann is currently an Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Fellow in Berlin, where she is conducting research for her project “Investigating Nazi Crimes in West Germany: The Legal Confrontation with the Past from 1958 to 1985.” Her book, Beyond Justice: The Auschwitz Trial, is forthcoming from Harvard University Press in the spring of this year.
SESSION II: National Memory and Holocaust Denial in the Courtroom
Moderator—Patricia Heberer, Historian, Division of the Senior Historian, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, USHMM
From Trying the Perpetrator to Trying the Denier: Similarities and Differences—Lawrence Douglas, Associate Professor of Law, Department of Law, Social Thought and Jurisprudence,Amherst College, Massachusetts
- Lawrence Douglas is author of Memory of Judgement: Making Law and History in the Trials of the Holocaust (2001), a comparative study of the Nuremberg Tribunal and the trials of Adolf Eichmann, John “Ivan” Demjanjuk, Klaus Barbie, and Ernst Zundel. He is currently writing a book entitled Reflections on the Glass Booth: The Cultural Afterlife of Perpetrator Trials, to be published by Princeton University Press.
The Bousquet,Touvier, and Papon Trials and Remembering Vichy—Richard J. Golsan, Director, Department of European Studies, and Professor of French,Texas A&M University, College Station,Texas
- Richard J. Golsan is author of The Politics of Complicity: French Writers, Intellectuals, and Anti-Democratic Politics in the 1940s and 1990s (forthcoming) and Vichy’s Afterlife: History and Counterhistory in Postwar France (2000). He is editor of the English version of Henri Rousso’s Stalinism and Nazism: History and Memory Compared (2004), among other works.
The Kastner and Eichmann Trials in Israel—Leora Bilsky, Professor of Law, Buchmann Faculty of Law,Tel Aviv University, Israel
- Leora Bilsky is author of Transformative Justice: Israeli Identity on Trial (2004). She is currently completing a book project, “Political Trials in a Global World: The Changing Faces of Justice.”
ROUNDTABLE: Challenges and Lessons for Today
Moderator—John K. Roth, Edward J. Sexton Professor of Philosophy and Director, Center for the Study of the Holocaust, Genocide, and Human Rights, Claremont McKenna College, Claremont, California, and 2004–2005 Ina Levine Scholar, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, USHMM
Christopher R. Browning, Frank Porter Graham Professor of History, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; 1996–1997 J.B. and Maurice C. Shapiro Senior Scholar-in-Residence and 2002-2003 Ina Levine Scholar, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, USHMM; Member, Academic Committee, USHMC
- Christopher R. Browning is author of the acclaimed work Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (1992) as well as numerous other books on the Holocaust, including Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, German Killers (2000); Collected Memories: Holocaust History and Postwar Testimony (2003); and The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939–March 1942 (2004), which recently won the National Jewish Book Award.
Dick De Mildt, Editor, Justiz und NS-Verbrechen/Nazi Crimes on Trial, Institute of Criminal Law, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
- Dick W. De Mildt is author of In the Name of the People: Perpetrators of Genocide in the Reflection of Their Post-War Prosecution in West Germany (1996) and editor of the University of Amsterdam’s Justiz und NS-Verbrechen/Nazi Crimes on Trial series.
Deborah E. Lipstadt, Emory University, Keynote Speaker
- Deborah E. Lipstadt is author of Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust (1986, 1993) and Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory (1993), which was the first comprehensive study of attempts to deny the Holocaust and won the 1994 National Jewish Book Award. Her most recent book, History on Trial: My Day in Court with David Irving (2005), describes the case David J.C. Irving v. Penguin Books Ltd and Deborah Lipstadt, tried in London from January to April 2000.
David J. Scheffer, Visiting Professor of Law,The George Washington University Law School,Washington, DC; Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues (1997-2001) and Senior Adviser and Counsel to the US Permanent Representative to the United Nations (1993–1996), US Department of State
- Ambassador David Scheffer led the US Department of State’s negotiating team in the United Nations talks on the International Criminal Court and helped negotiate the creation of and sustain governmental support for the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, and the Extraordinary Chambers in Cambodia.
David Tolbert, Deputy Chief Prosecutor, United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY),The Hague, Netherlands
- David Tolbert served as Executive Director of the American Bar Association Central European and Eurasian Law Initiative (CEELI); Senior Legal Advisor, United Nations, The Hague; and Chief of the General Legal Division of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency in Vienna and Gaza.