On behalf of the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, it is a great pleasure for me to welcome all of you to the Museum for this special scholarly presentation. The United States Holocaust Memorial Council established the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies to promote the growth of the field of Holocaust studies, including the dissemination of scholarly output in the field, and to ensure the ongoing training of future generations of young scholars specializing in the Holocaust.
Planned activities of the Center include research and publication projects, conference activity, the development of fellowship and visiting scholar opportunities, and a dense network of cooperative programs with universities in the United States and abroad. The purpose of all activities will be to expand our knowledge of what transpired in Europe during the Holocaust, to achieve a more profound appreciation of the fate of the victims-Jewish victims and all other groups who were victims of genocide and related crimes against humanity-and a deeper understanding of how and why such a monumental tragedy occurred and, unfortunately, why such crimes continue to occur today in some parts of the world.
First, of course, one must be aware of what happened. The person I have the privilege of introducing to you has the distinction of bringing to light a crime that occurred not in Europe, but on the other side of the globe, in China, in 1937, several years before the outbreak of war in Europe, and before the full fury of the Holocaust was unleashed by the Nazis. She has made millions of people aware of a crime that claimed some 300,000 civilian victims in a period of weeks. She has presented us with a subject that will now be subjected to further research, hopefully with the continued involvement of our speaker, to achieve a better understanding of that tragedy, out of respect for its victims and in the hope of preventing repetitions.
Iris Chang is an accomplished journalist and author. She is a journalism graduate of the University of Illinois at Urbana and the author of several books. She received graduate fellowships from the Johns Hopkins University and awards for her work from the National Science Foundation, the Pacific Cultural Foundation, and the Harry Truman Library. She is the recipient of the John T. And Catherine D. MacArthur Foundation’s Award for Peace and International Cooperation. Ms. Chang’s book The Rape of Nanking-The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II is currently in its 17th printing, which is testimony to the chord she has struck. It is rare that one can introduce a speaker who has opened the door on a new field of research. Having done so, Iris Chang provides a memorial to the victims of the Nanking massacre, with which the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum respectfully identifies itself, and deepens our understanding of history and ourselves. Ms. Chang is making two important presentations at the Museum, on "The Rape of Nanking" and on "The Historiography of the Rape of Nanking," explaining why we know so little about it. Her work of memory and research and the work of this Museum and its scholarly Center are very closely related, and that is as it should be.
Paul Shapiro, Director
Good afternoon and welcome to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. I’m Lydia Perry, Acting Director of Public Programs. The Museum is pleased to present today’s program with Iris Chang and her book, The Rape of Nanking, The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. The program is cosponsored with the Education and Science Society and the Chinese American Forum. We are grateful to both organizations for their collaboration. I would like to thank in particular Shawai Chan and Lung Ching Chow (phonetic spellings).
After formal remarks Ms. Chang will answer questions from the audience. So everyone can hear, please use the microphones that we have in the aisles.
Please keep your questions brief and in the form of a question. She will then sign books, which will be available for sale in classroom B, just up the stairs. As you see, we have a large audience and time will not allow for much discussion there at the signing.
Ms. Chang will be speaking here again on Tuesday, from 12:30 to 2:00, a Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies event. You may call 488-6162 for a reservation.
Iris Chang received her bachelor’s degree in journalism from the University of Illinois, Urbana in 1988 and received her master’s degree in writing from the Writing Seminars Graduate Program at the Johns Hopkins University in 1991.
She is also the author of Thread of the Silk Worm and has written for the New York Times, the Chicago Tribune, and the Associated Press. She is the recipient of a John T. And Catherine D. McArthur Foundation Award, as well as grants from the National Science Foundation and the Harry Truman Library.
The Rape of Nanking has been on the New York Times best seller list for two months and on the best seller lists of the San Francisco Chronicle, the Wall Street Journal, the L.A. Times, the Washington Post and U.S.A. Today.
Before Ms. Chang, we will have a few words from Lung Ching Chow, Vice President of the co-sponsoring organization, Education and Science Society; Lung Ching.
Lung Ching Chow
Good afternoon. It heartens me to see a full audience here today. I am Lung Ching Chow. On behalf of the American -- Chinese American Forum and Education Science Society who have helped sponsor this program today, I welcome you.
We are here today to learn a significant event in World War II. A story of war-time atrocity, committed by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1937 in Nanking, China.
We are here also today, sixty years later, to acknowledge a truth, which has been long overlooked by the world, existing only in the memory of Chinese and oversea Chinese communities. We welcome Ms. Chang as historian and author of the book, The Rape of Nanking, Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. The book has reviewed a previously neglected story of brutality and deep violation of human dignity, a shock to our historical consciousness. The excavation of the truth forces us to recognize the holocaust of Chinese when we are still remembering the horror stories of the holocaust of European Jews.
We thank Ms. Chang for her meticulous research analysis in her writing the book, The Rape of Nanking. We also thank the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum for its sponsorship of this program. Both Ms. Chang and the Museum have provided the three hundred thousand victims and their families a forum, a court of justice, to tell their stories too long ignored. It is only through this recognition of this truth and the rememberings of the victim, we have a responsibility as a citizen of the world to remember, to learn from the true history, and to never to allow such things happen again. Thank you.
Greetings. It is a great honor to be here and I want to thank all of you for coming to the Holocaust Museum this afternoon to learn about a very ugly part of World War II history that some of you may be hearing about for the first time.
We all know about the horrors committed by Nazi Germany during the Jewish Holocaust and we all know about the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and how its aftermath launched a dangerous new nuclear age. These events have seared our collective awareness and form the scar tissue that we now recognize as world history.
But unfortunately, as Americans, we are by and large blissfully ignorant of the wounds left by the Japanese during the Pacific holocaust of World War II and by this I mean the atrocities committed by the Japanese against the Chinese, the Southeast Asians, the Koreans, the Filipinos and even our own American citizens.
Few Americans know that the Japanese invasion of China launched an 8-year war, which ultimately killed more than 19 million Chinese people. Few Americans also know that the Japanese lured, purchased, or kidnapped, hundreds of thousands of Asian women for sexual slavery for their Imperial Army -- women who were subjected to some of the most horrifying experiences inflicted on military prostitutes in history.
What I’m going to do this afternoon is use The Rape of Nanking, the subject of my new book, as just one example to illustrate what the Japanese did in many of the regions that they conquered.
Sixty years ago, in December 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the city of Nanking, then the capital of China, and within weeks the Japanese not only looted and burned the defenseless city, but systematically raped, murdered and tortured more than 300,000 Chinese civilians.
Three hundred thousand people might not seem like a huge number until you add some visual data to the statistic. One historian has estimated that if the dead from Nanking were to link hands, they would stretch from Nanking to the city of Hangchow, spanning a distance of some 200 miles. Their blood would weigh 1,200 tons and their bodies would fill 2,500 railroad cars stacked on top of each other. These bodies would reach the height of a 74-story building.
Also, 300,000 people might not seem like a huge number, until you place this in the context of World War II history. More people died in Nanking than from the atomic blasts at Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined. In fact the death toll of Nanking exceeds the total civilian casualty count of several European countries combined for all of World War II. So, in other words, if you add up the World War II civilian casualties for three countries -- England, France and Belgium -- for the entire war, that would still be less than the number of people who died in Nanking, just one Chinese city, in a matter of 6 to 8 weeks. But, unfortunately, numbers do not tell the full story. There was a degree of torture and suffering in Nanking that almost defies human comprehension.
An American missionary who was there said it was hell on earth. Women were nailed to walls or impaled after being raped, or nailed to boards and run over by army tanks. Men were hanged by their tongues on iron hooks, or buried waist down in the soil so that they could be torn apart by German Shepherd dogs. Even small children were not spared: babies were tossed in the air and bayoneted on the way down, or thrown into vats of boiling water. The orgy of violence was so brutal in Nanking that even the Nazis in the city were shocked.
This was not, as some Japanese may claim today, a massacre that was perpetrated in the heat of battle against Chinese guerrilla fighters or secret Chinese gangs, as one Japanese official put it. This was a cold, systematic massacre, perpetrated against innocent Chinese civilians and unarmed POWs after the city had fallen to the Japanese. A massacre that came as a directive from some of the highest levels of Japanese power.
The military had issued a kill-all-captives order at the time and the Japanese soldiers carried out this order, even though most of the Chinese POWs had thrown away their arms and surrendered and posed absolutely no threat to the Japanese. In their zeal to find Chinese soldiers, the Japanese Imperial Army killed rickshaw pullers, police officers, laborers and other men whom they merely suspected were soldiers. And during the first few days of the massacre, the Japanese machine-gunned tens of thousands of Chinese men, buried them alive, used them for decapitation contests or bayonet practice, or sprayed them with gasoline and set them on fire. Some of these executions were efficient, but there were Chinese men who died under the most slow, sadistic and excruciatingly painful circumstances. They were skinned alive, crucified, pricked to death by needles and even cannibalized.
The slaughter was so systematic that even Japanese reporters on the scene were horrified. Here are some excerpts from their dispatches to show how their shock spilled into print. Emie Masatocki, a Japanese military correspondent, wrote:
On Hsiakwan wharves, there was the dark silhouette of a mountain made of dead bodies. About 50 to 100 people were toiling there, dragging bodies from the mountain of corpses and throwing them into the Yangtze River. The bodies dripped blood, some of them still alive and moaning weakly, their limbs twitching. The laborers were busy working in total silence, as in a pantomime. In the dark, one could barely see the opposite bank of the river. On the pier was a field of glistening mud under the moon’s dim light. Wow! That’s all blood!
After a while, the coolies had done their job of dragging corpses and the soldiers lined them up along the river. Rat-a-tat machine-gun fire could be heard. The coolies fell backward into the river and were swallowed by the raging currents. The pantomime was over.
A Japanese officer at the scene estimated that 20,000 persons had been executed.
Yukio Omata, another correspondent, wrote the following:
Those in the first row were beheaded. Those in the second row were forced to dump the severed bodies into the river before they themselves were beheaded. The killing went on nonstop from morning until night, but they were only able to kill 2,000 persons in this way. The next day, tired of killing in this fashion, they set up machine guns. Two of them raked a cross-fire at the lined-up prisoners, rat-a-tat-tat. Triggers were pulled. The prisoners fled into the water, but no one was able to make it to the other shore.
Kawano Hiroki, a Japanese photojournalist, wrote:
Before the “Ceremony of Entering the City,” I saw 50 to 100 bodies drifting down the Yangtze River. Did they die in battle, or were they killed after being taken prisoner? Or were they slaughtered civilians?
I remember there was a pond just outside of Nanking. It looked like a sea of blood -- with splendid colors. If only I had color film … what a shocking shot that would have been.
Now, after killing most of the men in the city in this manner, the Japanese then turned their attention on the Chinese women. And the rape of Nanking is, without a doubt, the worst mass rape of World War II history and probably the second worse mass rape of world history. The Japanese Imperial Army raped great-grandmothers over the age of 80, children under the age of 8, they sliced open little girls who were simply not built for rape and even gang-raped pregnant women before tearing fetuses from their bellies. One man who saw the mutilated remains of many of these raped victims was John Rabe, a German national and Siemens company executive.
Rabe was one of the organizers of the Nanking Safety Zone Committee, a group of some 20 western foreigners who designated a 2.5 square mile area, within the city, as neutral territory off limits to the Japanese. This safety zone would eventually harbor 300,000 Chinese refugees and protect them from being massacred by the Japanese. Ironically enough, Rabe was not only the head of the Zone Committee, but also the head of the local Nazi party in Nanking, which has earned him the title of being “the Oskar Schindler of China.”
Let me read to you about what Rabe wrote about the Japanese treatment of Chinese people in his report to Adolf Hitler:
Groups of 3-10 marauding soldiers would begin by traveling through the city and robbing whatever there was to steal. They would continue by raping the women and girls and killing anything and anyone that offered any resistance, attempted to run away from them, or simply happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. There were girls under the age of 8 and women over the age of 70 who were raped and then, in the most brutal way possible, knocked down and beat up. We found corpses of women on beer glasses and others who had been lanced by bamboo shoots. I saw the victims with my own eyes -- I talked with some of them right before their deaths and had their bodies brought to the morgue at the Kulo hospital, so that I could be personally convinced that all of these reports had touched upon the truth.
Now, I won’t burden you with any more of the gruesome details of the mass rape, but I must point out that the Japanese army officials in Nanking not only sanctioned this mass rape, but encouraged it. There is plenty of evidence to show that the Japanese officers told soldiers that it was perfectly acceptable to rape as long as they disposed of the evidence afterwards, which meant, of course, disposing of the actual rape victims afterwards. The Japanese officers also joined in with the rape with the Japanese soldiers and even one of the top commanders, Ohta Hisao, single-handedly violated more than 20 women in the city.
All in all, the Japanese raped more than 20,000 women and girls in Nanking and some estimate that the figure could be as high as 80,000. But the full effects of the rape can not be measured on a tally sheet of statistics.
Can you imagine the agony of the woman who survived weeks of gang rape by the Japanese soldiers, only to find herself pregnant afterwards, or of the woman who faced the choice of murdering her own child, or rearing a half-Japanese child she could never love? No doubt many Chinese women simply could not make that choice and for months after the great rape a German diplomat noted that uncounted numbers of women were taking their own lives by flinging themselves into the Yangtze River.
Now, ironically, the rape of Nanking did more than destroy the lives of individual women in Nanking. It also resulted in the creation of a giant underground system of military prostitution, which trapped hundreds of thousand of Asian women into sexual slavery to the Japanese army. It is believed that the Japanese rape of women in Nanking had caused such a public outcry among western nations at the time, that the Japanese government tried to control the libido of the army by starting their own prostitution ring. And, so, an estimated 200,000 women, most of them Korean, but many also from other Asian countries, were forced to serve in what the Japanese government called “facilities of sexual comfort” to stop troops from raping women in regions they controlled in China.
The Japanese established their first comfort station in the Nanking region, close to Shanghai, shortly after the Nanking massacre in 1938. Decades later the Japanese tried to insist that these brothels were run by private entrepreneurs and not the wartime government. But, a Japanese professor by the name of Dr. Yoshiaki Yoshimi discovered concrete evidence in a Japanese government archives that the system was indeed authorized by officials of the Japanese high command. Now, many of these comfort women, some of them still teenagers or children when captured, were raped by as many as 20, 30 or 50 men a night, every night, for years during the war. Untold numbers of these women, whom the Japanese called “public toilets,” took their own lives when they heard their destiny, and countless others died from disease or murder.
The treatment of these comfort women is another untold horror that could fill volumes, even libraries, of atrocity books. Some women were raped by red hot iron rods so that the Japanese could sterilize them from venereal diseases. Some were hacked to small pieces, or rolled over nail-studded boards when they protested their treatment, their remains given to other comfort women to eat, as a warning to those who dared defy the Japanese Imperial Army.
The Japanese committed so many atrocities like this, in Nanking and elsewhere, that it is impossible to mention them all in a single speech. I only have time to mention a few of the worst crimes against humanity. I can’t even go into all the looting and arson and property destruction that was practiced systematically by the Japanese army in Nanking. But, just so you know, they burned down at least a third of the city, under the direction of Japanese officers, and caused hundreds of millions of dollars in damages. In the business districts of Nanking, Japanese soldiers loaded loot from department stores and companies into their army trucks before setting the buildings on fire. And often before they torched these buildings, they would force nearby civilians into these buildings, tear down the fire escapes and then set the structures on fire. The panicked civilians trapped inside would climb to the rooftops before jumping off to their deaths. Japanese soldiers were even seen laughing hysterically and taking photographs.
You should also know the Joseph Mengele-like medical experimentation that the Japanese practiced on the Nanking civilians after the massacre and elsewhere in China, such as in the notorious Unit 731 medical laboratory in Manchuria. In Nanking, the Japanese operated a secret medical lab, called Ei 1644, in which they fed or injected human guinea pigs with cyanide, snake poison, germs and lethal gasses. They killed about 10 people weekly in this manner and then incinerated the bodies. But in Unit 731 in Manchuria, they killed even more people, performing horrendous experiments and even vivisection without anesthesia on Chinese and American prisoners.
All of these stories, of course, beg the question of why this happened in the first place. The true reasons behind the rape of Nanking remain one of the great mysteries of world history. We will never know exactly what transpired behind the scenes, but scholars have, over the years, come up with various theories. And they have speculated that the Japanese, frustrated by Chinese resistance, wanted to make an example of the capital of China.
One problem was that many of the top Japanese officials seriously believed that they could conquer all of China within three months of invasion. But, when the battle of Shanghai alone lasted that long, it destroyed Japanese dreams of an easy victory. And the Japanese conquered Shanghai, finally, only after a protracted battle in the winter of 1937. And it was said that the Japanese army lusted for revenge as it marched from Shanghai to Nanking.
Still, it is difficult to fathom exactly why the Japanese were so brutal in Nanking as to completely disregard the value of human life. And I can only offer several theories as to why it happened. One possible reason is rooted in the soldier’s early boyhood training, which inculcated him for violence. Let us place this boyhood in the context of the times. In the 1920s and early 1930s, Japanese society was reeling from severe economic depression and political instability. When ultranationalist fanatics urged expansionism into China and even world domination to cure Japanese economic woes, people were willing to listen. And under their influence, Japan became an intensely militaristic culture. In school, Japanese teachers instilled in young boys hatred and contempt for Chinese people, to prepare them psychologically for a future invasion of the mainland.
One historian wrote how a Japanese schoolboy in the 1930s burst into tears when he was ordered to dissect a frog. His teacher slapped him and yelled “why are you crying about one lousy frog, when you grow up, you’ll have to kill 100, 200 Chinks.”
A second reason may lie in the dehumanizing training that the Japanese soldiers were forced to undergo. The atmosphere of violence, the pressure to conform to authority, only intensified if the Japanese schoolboy decided to become a soldier. Vicious hazing in the Japanese army usually squelched from these boys any residual spirit of individualism.
Japanese officers and older soldiers slapped new recruits for almost no reason at all, beat them severely with heavy wooden rods, or forced them to perform humiliating tasks such as washing the underwear of superiors.
In such a brutal climate it is easy to see how months of pent-up frustration, within the Japanese soldier, could have exploded into uncontrollable violence in Nanking. The Japanese soldier, after all, had endured in silence whatever his superior had chosen to deal out to him. And now the Chinese had to take whatever he chose to deal out to them. This training included killing exercises employed by the Japanese army to desensitize soldiers to acts of torture. The following story, which was written by a former recruit, is typical of the training that they receive and I will read it:
One day Second Lieutenant Ono said to us, “You have never killed anyone yet. So, today we shall have some killing practice. You must not consider the Chinese as a human being, but only as something of rather less value than a dog or cat. Be brave. Now, those who wish to volunteer for killing practice, step forward.
No one moved. The lieutenant lost his temper.
“You cowards,” he shouted. “Not one of you is fit to call himself a Japanese soldier. So, no one will volunteer? Well, then I’ll order you.” And he began to call out names. Otani -- Furukawa -- Ueno -- Tajima! (My God, me too!)
I raised my bayoneted gun with trembling hands, and -- directed by the lieutenant’s almost hysterical cursing -- I walked slowly toward the terror-stricken Chinese standing beside the pit -- the grave he helped to dig. In my heart, I begged his pardon, and -- with my eyes shut and the lieutenant’s curses in my ears, I plunged the bayonet into the petrified Chinese. When I opened my eyes again, he had slumped down into the pit. “Murderer! Criminal!” I called myself.
Now, aside from these killing contests and killing exercises, we must also factor in the role of religion. One former Japanese soldier said he had been reared to believe that the Japanese emperor was the natural holy ruler of the world. And that the Japanese was racially superior to the rest of the world and that it was the divine destiny of Japan to control Asia. And so, when a local Christian priest asked him, who is greater, God or the emperor of Japan, he had no doubt that “the emperor” was the correct answer.
The religious component is important, because it was exploited by the Japanese army to cheapen all human life, not just Chinese life. One Japanese soldier told me that it was easy for him and his comrades to take Chinese lives, because they didn’t even value their own lives. Next to the emperor, he told me, all human life was meaningless. He was taught that loyalty was as heavy as a mountain and that his own life was as light as a feather. And that the greatest honor for a Japanese soldier in war was to come home dead.
Now, what I find chilling about the rape of Nanking is that many of the perpetrators were not, by nature, psychopaths or diabolical serial killer types. They were ordinary men who were handed rifles and bayonets and put under the extraordinary stresses and circumstances of war. And many of them became model citizens once they returned to Japan, citizens respected by their neighbors, who would find it today next to impossible to believe they had once been ruthless murderers, torturers or rapists.
I make this point because I believe that the Japanese are not uniquely capable of these kinds of atrocities. I think all people are capable of them if put under the right social and cultural circumstances. What is unique about Japan is that it is one of the few countries from World War II that has evaded punishment for its crimes.
The Rape of Nanking is really the story of two rapes. The first rape happened 60 years ago. The second rape is ongoing and it is the rape of history and justice. To this very day, the Japanese take no responsibility for these atrocities, even though the wartime government gave the order to commit them. And there are politicians in Japan who have gone on the record to deny that any of these atrocities happened at all.
But, I want to stress here, there is no lack of evidence on the Nanking massacre, or other Japanese atrocities of World War II. There are literally hundreds of survivors still alive in Nanking today who can testify about the massacre there. And in the course of my research alone, I found thousands upon thousands of unpublished primary-source documentations on the rape of Nanking: diaries, eyewitness reports, letters, government dispatches. They were generated contemporaneously with the event in four different languages: English, German, Chinese and Japanese. Also, the New York Times, the Chicago Daily News, the Associated Press, Readers Digest, Life magazine, all devoted considerable space at the time to news coverage of the massacre and newsreel footage of the horror still exists.
But to a shocking degree the Japanese have escaped the moral and financial responsibility that their counterparts in Germany had to face over and over again. The Germans, for example, have paid the equivalent of 60 billion U.S. dollars to their victims. And they will continue to pay several more billion by the year 2005. The Japanese, in contrast, have paid almost nothing. And certainly not one penny in reparations to the victims of Nanking. The Germans have made profuse apologies to their victims. But the Japanese, on the other hand, have yet to deliver one sincere apology to the survivors of the Nanking massacre or their families. In fact, several Japanese officials have openly proclaimed that the massacre never happened at all, or dismiss it as a minor incident, much overblown.
Even more disturbing is the discrepancy in public education in both countries on the event. The Germans are required by law to teach the history of the Jewish Holocaust in their schools. And even with this law, we still have a problem with neo-Nazism and people in Germany denying that the Holocaust ever happened. But the Japanese, far from mandating the study of its World War II aggression, have openly impeded efforts of textbook authors to do so and have even censored details of the Nanking atrocities and other wartime crimes from their school textbooks.
What I find the most outrageous of all is the fact that the Japanese continue to worship their class A war criminals in the Yasukuni shrine in Tokyo. These criminals were men who carried the Japanese master race militarism to the point where it resulted in the Japanese soldiers seeing the lives and sensibilities of other races as having no greater consequence than the suffering of insects. And the worship of these men is not only morally reprehensible, but the source of a tremendous anguish to victims of the Japanese throughout Asia. And I think it is behavior that would never be tolerated if its parallel was practiced in Europe. The Japanese worship of these criminals is considered by many to be the moral and political equivalent of moving statues of Hitler and his cronies into the biggest cathedral of Berlin and worshipping them as gods.
Now, I find all of this sickening of course, but it might not be too late to seek justice for some of the surviving victims. Last year, Congressman William Lipinski, a Democrat from Illinois, introduced a bill denouncing the Japanese for their crimes, and demanded in the bill both a formal apology and reparations for the victims. The rape of Nanking is only one event in a long list of atrocities mentioned in the bill. And other victims mentioned in the bill include those who were subjected to the Bataan death march, the Korean comfort women, the subjects of the diabolic medical experiments inflicted on live American and Chinese prisoners by Japanese doctors in the notorious Unit 731 laboratory in Manchuria.
I urge any American with a conscience to help turn this bill into law. If passed, this bill will not only help Asians who endured outrages, such as the rape of Nanking, but American veterans who survived conditions in Japan far worse than even those in Nazi camps. One in twenty-five Americans died in Nazi captivity. One in three died under Japanese captivity.
In the end, I believe the truth will prevail. The truth is indestructible and the truth recognizes no national boundaries or political allegiances. If there is just one thing that you take home from my discussion here this afternoon, it is that we, as human beings, have a moral responsibility to seek out the truth, to force countries like Japan to face up to their past and to try to prevent atrocities like the rape of Nanking from ever happening again. Thank you, so much.