Read reflections and testimonies written by Holocaust survivors in their own words.

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  • Hunger Winter

    It was cold, bitter cold. I was only two and a half years old. My feet itched and hurt and then itched again—the result of chronic cold feet. The attic where my family was hiding had no heating, only a very small camping-like stove that was only used to heat water or some food, if we had it. It was the coldest winter in a long time. The southern part of the Netherlands was already liberated. We were in Amsterdam, the northern part. We were isolated and it was very difficult to get food, oil, or wood to heat. Trees were chopped down clandestinely in the night. Punishment for that action would be fierce.

    Tags:   louise lawrence-israëlslouise lawrence israëlsechoes of memory, volume 4

  • Selma

    Just after the war started in the Netherlands in 1940, my parents moved to a house on a quiet tree-lined street in the town of Haarlem, about 15 miles to the west of Amsterdam. Life was as normal as you could expect under the circumstances: wartime, occupation, the persecution of Jews.

    Tags:   louise lawrence-israëlslouise lawrence israëlsechoes of memory, volume 4

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