Read reflections and testimonies written by Holocaust survivors in their own words.

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  • The Reading of Names

    Kristallnacht, the nationwide pogrom against the Jewish community in Germany, Austria, and the occupied part of Czechoslovakia, occurred during the night of November 9-10, 1938, and was organized by the SA paramilitary troops who were joined by civilians. By then, the borders were closed; in any case, almost no country accepted Jews who wanted to leave the Third Reich. A short time before that event took place, a policeman who was a friend of the family (years earlier his fiancée had been our family’s maid) warned my father that the persecution of Jews in Germany was going to become much worse and that we should leave the country as soon as possible.

    Tags:   harry markowiczechoes of memory, volume 8anti-jewish legislationdenunciationdeportationjewish councilsdays of remembrancevolunteering at the museum

  • Gitele

    In September 1938, when I was one year old, my family left our home in Berlin and crossed the border into Belgium. Although we had entered Belgium illegally, we were given residency permits; however, my father was not allowed to work legally. So he traded in foreign currencies, such as US dollars and British pounds, on the black market.

    Tags:   harry markowiczechoes of memory, volume 7belgiumdeportationjewish councilsoccupationmemory