Prosecution Exhibit #228-229, The Nazi Concentration Camps, Auschwitz, Poland, 1945. This film was taken by a Soviet military film crew upon liberating Auschwitz in January 1945.
Opening titles. People are shown in camp in winter with snow on the ground. CUs, prisoners behind wire (women and children). LSs, AVs, the camp covered with snow. Map of Auschwitz, plans for the crematorium. INT, old women in rows of bunks. "Arbeit Macht Frei" gate. Barbed wire. INT, gas chamber CUs women in the bunks. CUs albums of photographs (showing different nationalities). VS groups of survivors behind wires, worn faces, dead in the street, men with blankets over their heads. The evacuation of the camp is shown: prisoners are helped and carried out; crowds march out (many wearing striped suits); horses and wagons carry the sick; children are led out by nuns and others, including child survivor Tomy Shacham at 00:13:38 wearing a uniform with extra-long arms and Eva Mozes Kor and her twin sister Miriam leading the group at 00:13:50.
Reel 3 of The Nazi Concentration Camps, NARA #238.5. "Filmdokumente" on the German concentration camps, made under Russian auspices with narration in German.
See also Story 26, Film ID 5 for duplicate (although shorter) footage. See also Story 2769, Film ID 167 for duplicate footage of the entire film -- "Oswiecem" ["Auschwitz"] -- in English. See also Story 536, Film ID 213 and Story 3249, Film ID 2534.
Tomy Shacham and Eva Mozes Kor are interviewed in the 2015 British documentary, "Night Will Fall".
Biography / History:
The Soviet film about the liberation of Auschwitz was shot over a period of several months beginning on January 27, 1945, the day of liberation. It consists of both staged and unrehearsed footage of Auschwitz survivors (adults and children) taken in the first hours and days of their liberation, as well as scenes of their evacuation, which took place weeks or months later. The film includes the first inspection of the camp by Soviet war crimes investigators, as well as the initial medical examination of the survivors by Soviet physicians. It also records the public burial ceremony that took place on February 28, 1945 for Auschwitz victims who died just before and after the liberation. The order to make the film was issued by Mikhael Oschurkow, head of the photography unit, and was carried out by Alexander Voronzow and others in his group. Eighteen minutes of the film was introduced as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. Another segment of the film disappeared for forty years before resurfacing in Moscow in 1986. [Source: Alexander Voronzow interview, Chronos-Films, The Liberation of Auschwitz, 1986]
1988.184.1 The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum purchased the collection from various sources in 1988. Footage was obtained as research for the United States Holocaust Memorial Campaign's promotional video called "A Campaign to Remember" by David Haspel & Associates.
CONCENTRATION CAMPS (LIBERATION)
USHMM (PERMANENT EXHIBITION)
M. Oschurkow; A. Woronzow; N. Bykow; K. Kutub-Sade; A. Powlow
National Archives & Records Administration (NARA), 111 ADC 8556
35mm b/w print
1"; Betacam SP; VHS
00:04:51:15 - 00:14:14:18