Born: 1923, Riga, Latvia
Describes massacre in the Rumbula forest near Riga, Latvia [Interview: 1990]
The Germans occupied Riga in 1941, and confined the Jews to a ghetto. In late 1941, about 28,000 Jews from the ghetto were massacred at the Rumbula forest, near Riga. Steven and his brother were sent to a small ghetto for able-bodied men. In 1943 Steven was deported to the Kaiserwald camp and sent to a nearby work camp. In 1944 he was transferred to Stutthof and forced to work in a shipbuilding firm. in 1945, Steven and his brother survived a death march and were liberated by Soviet forces.
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