Louise Arbour has served as President & CEO of the International Crisis Group since July 2009. Previously she acted as United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 2004 to 2008. Ms. Arbour began her academic career in 1974. In 1977, she was nominated Associate Professor and Associate Dean at Osgoode Hall Law School of York University in Toronto, Canada. In December 1987, she was appointed to the Supreme Court of Ontario (High Court of Justice) and in 1990 to the Court of Appeal for Ontario. In 1995, Ms. Arbour was appointed Commissioner to conduct an inquiry into the Prison for Women in Kingston, Ontario. In 1996, she was appointed by the Security Council of the United Nations as Chief Prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda. In 1999, she was appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada.