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< Bibliographies

Sinti and Roma (“Gypsies”)

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Gypsy prisoners at Bełżec.

Gypsy prisoners at Bełżec. ——US Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Archiwum Dokumentacji Mechanicznej

Introduction

Between 1933 and 1945 Sinti and Roma (“Gypsies”) suffered greatly as victims of Nazi persecution and genocide. Building on long-held prejudices, the Nazi regime viewed Gypsies both as "asocials" (outside “normal” society) and as racial "inferiors" believed to threaten the biological purity and strength of the “superior Aryan” race. During World War II, the Nazis and their collaborators killed tens of thousands of Sinti and Roma men, women, and children across German-occupied Europe.

This bibliography was compiled to guide readers to materials on Sinti and Roma victims that are in the Library’s collection. It is not meant to be exhaustive. Annotations are provided to help the user determine the item’s focus, and call numbers for the Museum’s Library are given in parentheses following each citation. Those unable to visit might be able to find these works in a nearby public library or acquire them through interlibrary loan. Follow the “Find in a library near you” link in each citation and enter your zip code at the Open WorldCat search screen. The results of that search indicate all libraries in your area that own that particular title. Talk to your local librarian for assistance.

History and Culture

English

  • Crowe, David. A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995. (DX 241 .C76 1995) [Find in a library near you]

    A review of Gypsy life, history, and culture from the Middle Ages to the present. Focuses on Gypsies in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Russia, and Yugoslavia.

  • Crowe, David, and John Kolsti, editors. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1991. (DX 145 .G95 1991) [Find in a library near you]

    A collection of papers reviewing Gypsy history through the 1980s, with a special emphasis on the period of the Holocaust.

  • Ficowski, Jerzy. The Gypsies in Poland: History and Customs. Interpress Publishers, [1989]. (Oversize DX 242 .F55 1989) [Find in a library near you]

    Filled with illustrations and short essays on Gypsy history and culture.

  • Fonseca, Isabel. Bury Me Standing: The Gypsies and Their Journey. New York: Knopf, 1995. (DX 115 .F66 1995) [Find in a library near you]

    A detailed look at Gypsy history, anthropology, and culture based on personal stories. Includes a section on the Holocaust.

  • Fraser, Angus M. The Gypsies. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. (DX 115 .F73 1992) [Find in a library near you]

    A broad account of Gypsy history, including a section on “The Forgotten Holocaust.”

  • Tebbutt, Susan, editor. Sinti and Roma: Gypsies in German-Speaking Society and Literature. New York: Berghahn Books, 1998. (DX 229 .S53 1998) [Find in a library near you]

    A collection of essays addressing the persecution and prejudice Sinti and Roma face in German-speaking countries and highlighting the contributions Sinti and Roma have made to German-speaking society and literature. Includes chapters focusing on their persecution in Munich during the time of the Holocaust and their continued persecution in postwar Germany and Austria.

  • Willems, Wim. In Search of the True Gypsy: From Enlightenment to Final Solution. London: Frank Cass, 1997. (DX 145 .W5513 1997) [Find in a library near you]

    Traces the history of the Gypsies in an effort to determine why they are viewed in contemporary society as both intriguing and undesirable. Also contains a section on Robert Ritter, eugenicist and criminal biologist under the Third Reich, who researched methods to rid society of Gypsies. Includes a bibliography, index, list of archives, extensive notes, and six appendices.

German

  • Block, Martin Friedrich. Zigeuner: ihr Leben und ihre Seele, dargestellt auf Grund eigener Reisen und Forschungen; mit 99 Abbildungen und 64 Kunstdrucktafeln. Leipzig: Bibliographisches Institut, 1936. (DX 155 .B57 1936) [Find in a library near you]

    A National Socialist pseudo-anthropological study presenting stereotypical views of Gypsy society and customs. Includes numerous photographs.

  • Daniel, Bartolomej, and Joachim Hohmann. Geschichte der Roma in Böhmen, Mähren und der Slowakei. New York: P. Lang, 1998. (DX 222 .D27 1998) [Find in a library near you]

    A comprehensive history of the immigration and settlement of Roma beginning in the 14th century in the regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Slovakia. Part of the series Studien zur Tsiganologie und Folkloristik.

  • Giere, Jacqueline. Die gesellschaftliche Konstruktion des Zigeuners: zur Genese eines Vorurteils. New York: Campus Verlag, 1996. (DX 145 .G47 1996) [Find in a library near you]

    Explores the history of stereotypes surrounding Sinti and Roma culture and society, with special emphasis on the German and Austrian regions.

  • Hohmann, Joachim. Geschichte der Zigeunerverfolgung in Deutschland. New York: Campus Verlag, 1988. (DX 229 .H63 1988) [Find in a library near you]

    A comprehensive history of the persecution of Sinti and Roma in Germany, with emphasis on the Holocaust period. Includes a bibliography.

  • Justin, Eva. “Lebensschicksale artfremd erzogener Zigeunerkinder und ihrer Nachkommen.” Ph.D. diss., Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat zu Berlin, 1943. (Oversize DX 229 .J87 1943) [Find in a library near you]

    A doctoral thesis in anthropology based on the racial experiments performed on a group of thirty-nine Sinti children at a Nazi clinic in Mulfingen from 1943 to 1944. Developed and written in support of National Socialist pseudo-scientific race theory and eugenics. The faculty advisor for this thesis was Dr. Robert Ritter, race scientist and head of the Bevölkerungsbiologische Forschungsstelle des Reichsgesundheitsamtes (Racial Hygiene and Demographic Biology Research Unit).

  • Lucassen, Leo. Zigeuner: die Geschichte eines polizeilichen Ordnungsbegriffes in Deutschland, 1700-1945. Weimar: Böhlau, 1996. (DX 229 .L8 1996) [Find in a library near you]

    Chronicles the discrimination against and persecution of Sinti and Roma in Europe by police authorities, particularly during the 19th century, and explores the history and the societal connotations of the term “Zigeuner” (“Gypsy”). Includes information on the lynching of Sinti and Roma throughout the centuries, and on Nazi policy against these ethnic minorities. Features several statistical tables and a bibliography.

  • Mayerhofer, Claudia. Dorfzigeuner: Kultur und Geschichte der Burgenland-Roma von der Ersten Republik bis zur Gegenwart. Wien: Picus, 1987. (DX 221 .M38 1987) [Find in a library near you]

    A comprehensive history of the Sinti and Roma populations in the Burgenland region in Austria, from the 15th century to modern times, including the Holocaust period. Includes information on the Zigeunerlager (“concentration camp for Gypsies”) in Lackenbach. Features numerous photographs and maps.

  • Remmel, Franz, and Renate Erich. Die Roma Rumäniens: Volk ohne Hinterland. Wien: Picus, 1993. (DX 224 .R46 1993) [Find in a library near you]

    One of the first comprehensive works on Roma history, society, and traditions in Romania, including the Holocaust period.

  • Wippermann, Wolfgang. Wie die Zigeuner: Antisemitismus und Antiziganismus im Vergleich. Berlin: Elefanten Press, 1997. (DD 74 .W56 1997) [Find in a library near you]

    Explores the historical similarities between the persecution of Jews and that of Sinti and Roma, with emphasis on the early 20th century and the Holocaust. Includes a detailed bibliography.

The Nazi Period

English

  • Alt, Betty Sowers, and Sylvia Folts. Weeping Violins: The Gypsy Tragedy in Europe. Kirksville, MO: Thomas Jefferson University Press, 1996. (D 810 .G9 A48 1996) [Find in a library near you]

    Discusses the reasons behind the mass murder of the Gypsies. Includes survivor stories and other information drawn from numerous interviews and oral histories. Describes the continuing persecution against this racial and ethnic minority.

  • Bauer, Yehuda. “Gypsies.” In Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, edited by Israel Gutman, 634-638. New York: MacMillan, 1990. (Reference D 804.25 .E527 1990 v.2) [Find in a library near you]

    A solid overview of the attitudes toward and treatment of Gypsies under the Nazi regime and throughout occupied Europe. Includes background information concerning Gypsy history and culture and a brief look at the long-standing prejudice against Gypsies.

  • Bauer, Yehuda. “Gypsies.” In Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, edited by Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum, 441-455. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998. (D 805.5 .A96 A53 1998) [Find in a library near you]

    Describes the fate of Gypsies living under the Third Reich, particularly focusing on those sent to Auschwitz.

  • Burleigh, Michael, and Wolfgang Wippermann. “The Persecution of Sinti and Roma, and Other Ethnic Minorities.” In The Racial State: Germany, 1933-1945, 113-135. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. (DD 256.5 .B93 1991) [Find in a library near you]

    Discusses the treatment of the Gypsies in the context of Nazi racial ideology. Describes how such racial ideas were translated into official policy and enacted against these ethnic groups.

  • Cargas, Harry J. “The Continuum of Gypsy Suffering.” In Reflections of a Post-Auschwitz Christian, 75-90. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1989. (BR 115 .H55 C275 1989) [Find in a library near you]

    Explores the historical background of the Gypsies’ oppression and provides thoughtful commentary on these long-standing racial prejudices. Includes descriptions of Nazi atrocities against the Gypsies.

  • Duna, William A., and Paul Polansky. The Hidden Holocaust of the Gypsies. Minneapolis: Sa-Roma, 1997. (D 804.5 .G85 H53 1997) [Find in a library near you]

    A four-volume work focusing on the Gypsy camp in Lety, Czechoslovakia. Provides transcripts of oral histories from Gypsy survivors and guards of the camp, as well as numerous photos of the camp and its prisoners. Includes a partial list of camp-related records from the Trebon State Archives.

  • Ficowski, Jerzy. “The Fate of Polish Gypsies.” In Genocide and Human Rights: A Global Anthology, edited by Jack Nusan Porter, 166-177. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1982. (JX 5418 .G46 1982) [Find in a library near you]

    Briefly describes the treatment of Gypsies both in and outside the concentration camps during the Holocaust. Summarizes the fate of Gypsy survivors and highlights their ongoing silence about their experiences in the camps. Includes the text of two Gypsy songs written in Auschwitz.

  • Fings, Karola, Herbert Heuss, and Frank Sparing. The Gypsies During the Second World War. England: University of Hertfordshire Press, 1997. (D 810 .G9 F56713 1997) [Find in a library near you]

    An historical overview of the steps taken in Germany to isolate and persecute Sinti and Roma. Includes a review of governmental policies established against Gypsies, the implementation of Gypsy camps, and the conditions Gypsies faced within the concentration camps of Buchenwald, Ravensbrück, and Auschwitz.

  • Friedman, Philip. “The Extermination of the Gypsies.” In Genocide and Human Rights: A Global Anthology, edited by Jack Nusan Porter, 151-157. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1982. (JX 5418 .G46 1982) [Find in a library near you]

    Briefly reviews the history of persecution toward Gypsies and discusses the establishment of the Nazi racial policy defining Gypsies as “non-Aryan.” Summarizes the actions against Gypsies in various countries, their low rate of survival, and their treatment following the War. Also published in Roads to Extinction: Essays on the Holocaust (New York: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1980; D 810 .J4 F739 1980).

  • Greenville, John A.S. “Neglected Holocaust Victims: The Mischlinge, the Judischversippte, and the Gypsies.” In The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined, edited by Michael Berenbaum and Abraham J. Peck, 315-326. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998. (D 804.18 .H66 1998) [Find in a library near you]

    Briefly traces the development of Gypsy persecution in the Holocaust and the problems the Nazis faced in identifying those of pure racial heritage.

  • Hancock, Ian. Land of Pain: Five Centuries of Gypsy Slavery and Persecution. Buda, TX: World Romani Union, 1986. (DX 115 .H345 1982) [Find in a library near you]

    A history of the discrimination and violence against Gypsies. Includes a chapter entitled “German Treatment of Gypsies in the Twentieth Century,” which focuses on Nazi policies and actions against Gypsies during the Holocaust and sets them in the larger context of oppression faced by Gypsies throughout history. A corrected and expanded version of this book was published as The Pariah Syndrome: An Account of Gypsy Slavery and Persecution (DX 115 .H35 1987).

  • Hancock, Ian. “Responses to the Porrajmos: The Romani Holocaust.” In Is the Holocaust Unique?: Perspectives on Comparative Genocide, edited by Alan S. Rosenbaum, 69-95. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001. (D 804.348 .I8 2001) [Find in a library near you]

    Examines how the involvement of Sinti and Roma in the Holocaust has been addressed, minimized, or ignored by Holocaust scholars and historians. Identifies and comments upon twelve different challenges to the idea that the Romani persecution should be categorized separately from the Jewish case.

  • Kenrick, Donald, and Grattan Puxon. The Destiny of Europe’s Gypsies. New York: Basic Books, 1972. (DX 145 .K45 1973) [Find in a library near you]

    A scholarly study exploring the roots of prejudice against Gypsies through history and exploring how such prejudice was translated into persecution during the Nazi period. Includes testimony from survivors.

  • Kenrick, Donald, and Grattan Puxon. Gypsies under the Swastika. Hertfordshire, England: Gypsy Research Centre, University of Hertfordshire Press, 1995. (D 810 .G9 K46 1995) [Find in a library near you]

    A new edition of the author’s 1972 work, The Destiny of Europe’s Gypsies (see above). Offers a revised text and new material on the occupied and satellite countries, covering the fate of the Gypsies throughout Europe during the period of the Holocaust.

  • Lewy, Guenther. The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. (D 804.5 .G85 L49 2000) [Find in a library near you]

    Draws upon thousands of Austrian and German documents to examine the Third Reich’s policy toward the Gypsies. Evaluates the Nazi persecution of the Gypsies, comparing it to the full-scale “final solution” launched against the Jews.

  • Lipa, Jiri. “The Fate of Gypsies in Czechoslovakia under Nazi Domination.” In A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis, edited by Michael Berenbaum, 207-215. New York: New York University Press, 1990. (D 804 .G4 M63 1990) [Find in a library near you]

    A summary of the actions taken against Gypsies in Slovakia and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia from 1939 to 1945.

  • Lutz, Brenda Davis, and James M. Lutz. “Gypsies as Victims of the Holocaust.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 9:3 (Winter 1995) 346-359. (D 810 .J4 H6428 v.9) [Find in a library near you]

    A comparative analysis examining the extent to which Gypsies were a special target group slated for elimination under Nazi genocidal policies. Compares the treatment of Gypsies and Jews during the Holocaust, particularly exploring how geographic location might have played a role in the differing death rates of the two groups.

  • Margalit, Gilad. Germany and Its Gypsies: A Post-Auschwitz Ordeal.  Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002. (DX 229 .M3713 2002)  [Find in a library near you]

    Traces German public opinion and policies about the Romani from the nineteenth century through the Third Reich. Details the Nazi genocide and postwar issues such as compensation, court trials, and current attitudes toward Roma. Includes a bibliography, photographs, and a table of contents.

  • Megel, John. “The Holocaust and the American Rom.” In Papers from the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings, Gypsy Lore Society, North American Chapter, edited by Joanne Grumet, 187-190. New York: The Society, 1986. (DX 103 .G97 1984) [Find in a library near you]

    Personal reflections on the years of silence surrounding the Gypsy Holocaust and recommendations for the ongoing involvement of American Gypsies in learning and educating others about this tragic period of history.

  • Meinecke Jr., William F. Nazi Ideology and the Holocaust. Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2007. (D 804.3 .N43 2007) [Find in a library near you]

    Details Nazi ideology as applied to a variety of victim groups including political opponents, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, Poles and other Slavs, as well as German citizens of African and Roma descent or persons with physical and mental disabilities. Supplemented by excerpts of writings by perpetrators. Includes photographs, a bibliography, and an index.

  • Michalewicz, Bogumila. “The Gypsy Holocaust in Poland.” In Papers from the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings, Gypsy Lore Society, North American Chapter, edited by Joanne Grumet, 172-184. New York: The Society, 1986. (DX 103 .G97 1984) [Find in a library near you]

    Reports on the fate of the Gypsies sent to ghettos and extermination camps in Poland. Camps discussed are Auschwitz, Stutthof, Chełmno, Bełżec, Treblinka, and Sobibor. Includes excerpts from eyewitness and survivor accounts of Gypsy treatment at the hands of the Nazis.

  • Milton, Sybil. “Holocaust: The Gypsies.” In Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views, edited by Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, and Israel Charny, 171-207. New York: Garland Publishing, 1997. (HV 6322.7 .C46 1997) [Find in a library near you]

    Reviews the anti-Gypsy racial hygiene policies established under the Third Reich and the resulting persecution Gypsies faced. Describes the establishment of Gypsy camps and the later steps taken to confine Gypsies in concentration camps. Addresses the harassment and discrimination Gypsies continued to face in postwar Germany. Includes excerpts from personal accounts of Gypsies in the camps.

  • Müller-Hill, Benno. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others: Germany, 1933-1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. (DD 256.8 .M45 M892 1988) [Find in a library near you]

    Chronicles the part scientists and physicians played in establishing Nazi policies of racial purity and in carrying out those policies through the identification and extermination of those groups identified as racially inferior. See especially pages 56-62 for a discussion of the “Gypsy question.”

  • Roma and Sinti: Under-Studied Victims of Nazism: Symposium Proceedings.” Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2002. (D 804.5 .G85 R645 2002) [Find in a library near you]

    A collection of seven addresses given at the Symposium on Roma and Sinti during the Holocaust that was held at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in September 2000. Covers the persecution of Sinti and Roma in Germany, Austria, Croatia, France, and Romania, and the circumstances they faced in the concentration camps. Touches upon the involvement of Roma and Sinti in war crimes trials, reparation movements, and Holocaust scholarship. Also reviews the contemporary life of Romani-Americans. 

  • Rose, Romani, editor. The Nazi Genocide of the Sinti and Roma. Heidelberg: Documentary and Cultural Centre of German Sinti and Roma, 1995. (Oversize D 810 .G9 N39 1995) [Find in a library near you]

    A documentary account of the Holocaust focusing on the systematic genocide against the Sinti and Roma. Uses reproductions of Nazi documents, numerous photographs, and survivor testimonies to follow the course of Nazi persecution from social marginalization to deportation and extermination.

  • State Museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau, editor. Memorial Book: The Gypsies at Auschwitz-Birkenau. München: K.G. Saur, 1993. (Reference DX 145 .M4 1993) [Find in a library near you]

    A two-volume work giving the camp register of Gypsies at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Introductory materials give an overview of the Nazi policies against Gypsies and the steps taken toward Gypsy extermination. Includes a brief history of the Gypsy camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Provides parallel text in English, Polish, and German.

  • Stauber, Roni, and Raphael Vago. The Roma: A Minority in Europe: Historical, Political and Social Perspectives. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2007. (DX 145 .R586 2007) [Find in a library near you]

    Presents ten essays from various scholars exploring the place of Nazi persecution in Romani cultural memory. Individual essays cover such topics as the racial stigmatization of the Roma before and after Nazism, the public reaction to deportations to Transnistria, and the commemoration of Nazi persecution in Romani culture.

  • Thurner, Erika. National Socialism and Gypsies in Austria. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1998. (D 810 .G9 T4813 1998) [Find in a library near you]

    Uses documents and victims’ eyewitness accounts to illustrate the persecution of Gypsies in Hitler’s Austria. Expanded from the original edition to include a new study of Camp Salzburg, an updated bibliography, and additional photographs. The Library also has an edition in German under the title, Nationalsozialismus und Zigeuner in Österreich.

  • Tyrnauer, Gabrielle. Gypsies and the Holocaust: A Bibliography and Introductory Essay. Montreal: Interuniversity Centre for European Studies [and] Montreal Institute for Genocide Studies, 1989. (Z 5118 .G5 T96 1989) [Find in a library near you]

    Begins with an extensive essay addressing the persecution and killing of Gypsies during the Holocaust. Includes 576 entries of books, articles, documents, and archives pertaining to Gypsies and the Holocaust. Provides an index for accessing the bibliography by subject.

  • Tyrnauer, Gabrielle. “‘Mastering the Past’: Germans and Gypsies.” In Genocide and Human Rights: A Global Anthology, edited by Jack Nusan Porter, 178-187. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1982. (JX 5418 .G46 1982) [Find in a library near you]

    A post-Holocaust view of race relations in Germany with some reference to the treatment of Gypsies in concentration camps.

  • Tyrnauer, Gabrielle. The Fate of the Gypsies During the Holocaust: Report to the United States Holocaust Memorial Council. [Vt.?: G. Tyrnauer, 1985] (D 810 .G9 T97 1985) [Find in a library near you]

    Describes the tragic elements of the Gypsy Holocaust. Makes recommendations for ongoing research and historical work in this area. Encourages the involvement of American Gypsies in the work of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council.

  • Tyrnauer, Gabrielle. “Scholars, Gypsies and the Holocaust.” In Papers from the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings, Gypsy Lore Society, North American Chapter, edited by Joanne Grumet, 157-164. New York: The Society, 1986. (DX 103 .G97 1984) [Find in a library near you]

    Discusses the significant role Gypsy scholars have played in understanding the Gypsy Holocaust and argues for the continued publication of materials relating to this forgotten population of Holocaust victims.

  • Wippermann, Wolfgang. “Christine Lehmann and Mazurka Rose: Two ‘Gypsies’ in the Grip of German Bureaucracy, 1931-60.” In Confronting the Nazi Past: New Debates on Modern German History, edited by Michael Burleigh, 112-124. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996. (DD 256.5 .C646 1996) [Find in a library near you]

    Details the separate experiences of two Gypsies, one man and one woman, sent to concentration camps under Nazi policies designed to protect racial purity. Provides a general overview of these policies and of how they were used to justify the imprisonment and extermination of Gypsies. Discusses the post-war experiences of one Gypsy survivor.

  • Yates, Dora E. “Hitler and the Gypsies.” In Genocide and Human Rights: A Global Anthology, edited by Jack Nusan Porter, 158-165. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1982. (JX 5418 .G46 1982) [Find in a library near you]

    Compares the attitudes toward and treatment of the Gypsies to that of the Jews. Includes testimonies from Gypsy survivors as a means of describing Nazi policies and extermination activities.

German

  • Abendroth, Elisabeth, and Josef Behringer, editors. “Der Schrecken aber endete nicht”: Reden gegen das Vergessen: Sinti und Roma in Frankfurt am Main: Deportation im Nationalsozialismus: Diskriminierung heute. Frankfurt am Main: Institut für Stadtgeschichte, Historikerkoordination, 1993. (DX 229 .S37 1993) [Find in a library near you]

    A collection of speeches, articles, and eyewitness accounts published on the occasion of the 55th anniversary of the deportations of Sinti and Roma from Frankfurt, Germany. Includes a chronology of events, reproductions of original documents, and documentation on recent human rights efforts led by Frankfurt's Sinti and Roma communities.

  • Awosusi, Anita, and Michail Krausnick. Katalog zur Ausstellung “Die Überlebenden sind die Ausnahme”: der Völkermord an Sinti und Roma: eine Ausstellung des Verbandes Deutscher Sinti, Landesverband Rheinland-Pfalz. [Landau/Pfalz]: Verband Deutscher Sinti, Landesverband Rheinland-Pfalz, 1992. (Oversize D 804.5 .G85 A96 1992) [Find in a library near you]

    The catalog to the exhibition, Die Überlebenden sind die Ausnahme (“The Survivors are the Exception”), documenting Sinti and Roma culture and society in the region of Rheinland-Pfalz and their persecution by the National Socialists. Features numerous historical photographs, survivor testimonies and a chronology of the Sinti and Roma genocide.

  • Bamberger, Edgar, and Annegret Ehmann, editors. Kinder und Jugendliche als Opfer des Holocaust: Dokumentation einer Internationalen Tagung in der Gedenkstätte Haus der Wannseekonferenz 12. bis 14. Dezember 1994. Heidelberg: Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma: Gedenkstätte Haus der Wannseekonferenz, 1995.(D 804.5 .G85 K56 1995) [Find in a library near you]

    The proceedings of the conference, Kinder und Jugendliche als Opfer des Holocaust (“Children and Adolescents as Victims of the Holocaust”), held December 12 to 14, 1994 at the memorial site Haus der Wannseekonferenz. Includes essays about the Nazi persecution and murder of Sinti and Roma children, and eyewitness testimonies by children survivors of various concentration camps.

  • Bamberger, Edgar. Der Völkermord an den Sinti und Roma in der Gedenkstättenarbeit: Tagung im Berliner Reichstag am 15. und 16. Dezember 1993. Heidelberg: Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma, 1994. (DX 145 .V65 1994) [Find in a library near you]

    A collection of essays and lectures discussing remembrance projects and memorials for Sinti and Roma Holocaust victims in modern-day Germany.

  • Dlugoborski, Waclaw. Sinti und Roma im KL Auschwitz-Birkenau 1943-44: vor dem Hintergrund ihrer Verfolgung unter der Naziherrschaft. Oświęcim: Verlag Staatliches Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau, 1998. (D 804.5 .G85 S57 1998) [Find in a library near you]

    A collection of twenty-six essays, topically arranged, on the persecution of Sinti and Roma under National Socialism and the attempt to garner reparations for Sinti and Roma victims after the war. Also includes a bibliography of over four-hundred articles and books on the Nazi persecution of Sinti and Roma during the Third Reich.

  • Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma; Kulturverein Österreichischer Roma. Mauthausen: Mahnmal für die ermordeten Sinti und Roma. Heidelberg: Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma, Kulturverein Österreichischer Roma, 1998. (D 805.5 .M38 M375 1998) [Find in a library near you]

    An account of the formal dedication ceremony of a monument to honor and remember Sinti and Roma Holocaust victims that was held at the memorial site of the former concentration camp Mauthausen on May 9, 1998. Features transcripts of the speeches delivered on that occasion, numerous photographs, and a chronology of the Sinti and Roma genocide.

  • Eiber, Ludwig, Eva Strauss, and Michail Krausnick. “Ich wußte es wird schlimm”: die Verfolgung der Sinti und Roma in München. München: Buchendorfer, 1993. (DX 229 .E33 1993) [Find in a library near you]

    A detailed documentation and exhibit on the persecution of Sinti and Roma in Munich beginning with the early 20th century and focusing on the Holocaust period. Includes numerous photographs, eyewitness accounts, and primary source documents. Published on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the deportation of Sinti and Roma from Munich to Auschwitz.

  • Engbring-Romang, Udo. Marburg, Auschwitz: Zur Verfolgung der Sinti in Marburg und Umgebung. Frankfurt am Main: Brandes & Aspel, 1998. (D 804.5 .G85 E5327 1998) [Find in a library near you]

    A regional history of the Nazi persecution of Sinti and Roma in Marburg. Includes photographs, reproductions of Nazi documents concerning deportations and eugenics, eyewitness testimonies, and a bibliography. Volume 5 of the series Hornhaut auf der Seele documenting the Sinti and Roma genocide in the region of Hessen.

  • Engbring-Romang, Udo. Wiesbaden, Auschwitz: Zur Verfolgung der Sinti in Wiesbaden. Frankfurt am Main: Brandes & Aspel, 1998. (D 810 .G9 E55 1997) [Find in a library near you]

    A regional history of the Nazi persecution of Sinti and Roma in Wiesbaden. Includes photographs, reproductions of Nazi documents concerning deportations and eugenics, eyewitness testimonies, and a bibliography. Features a unique list of names of Sinti and Roma victims deported from Wiesbaden. Volume 2 of the series Hornhaut auf der Seele documenting the Sinti and Roma genocide in the region of Hessen.

  • Fings, Karola, and Frank Sparing. Z. Zt. Zigeunerlager: die Verfolgung der Sinti und Roma im Nationalsozialismus. Köln: Volksblatt Verlag, 1992. (DX 229 .F55 1992) [Find in a library near you]

    Documents the persecution of Sinti and Roma during the Third Reich in Düsseldorf, with special focus on the Zigeunerlager (“concentration camp for Gypsies”) Höherweg. Features numerous photographs, reproductions of original documents, and a chronology of events.

  • Fings, Karola, Cordula Lissner, and Frank Sparing. “...einziges Land, in dem Judenfrage und Zigeunerfrage gelöst”: die Verfolgung der Roma im faschistisch besetzten Jugoslawien 1941-1945. Köln: Rom e.V. Köln, 1992. (DX 271 .F56 1992) [Find in a library near you]

    A history of the persecution of Roma in Nazi occupied Yugoslavia. Includes numerous survivor testimonies, photographs, and a bibliography, as well as reproductions of Nazi documents concerning racial laws and actions against the Jewish and Roma populations in the area.

  • Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker; Verband deutscher Sinti. Sinti und Roma im ehemaligen KZ Bergen-Belsen am 27. Oktober 1979: erste deutsche und europäische Gedenkkundgebung “In Auschwitz vergast, bis heute verfolgt”: eine Dokumentation der Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker und des Verbands deutscher Sinti. Göttingen: die Gesellschaft, 1980. (DX 145 .S56 1980) [Find in a library near you]

    A compilation of speeches, newspaper articles, and photographs published on the occasion of the first remembrance ceremony for Sinti and Roma victims of the Holocaust, held on the grounds of the former concentration camp Bergen-Belsen. Includes documentation on the post-Holocaust human rights efforts led by Sinti and Roma in Europe.

  • Günther, Wolfgang. “Ach Schwester, ich kann nicht mehr tanzen...”: Sinti und Roma im KZ Bergen-Belsen. Hannover: SOAK, 1990. (DX 145 .G86 1990) [Find in a library near you]

    A history of Sinti and Roma in the concentration camp Bergen-Belsen. Includes plans of the camp, illustrations, a bibliography, photographs, and reproductions of original documents issued after the war by the Allies to former concentration camp inmates.

  • Hesse, Hans, and Jens Schreiber. Vom Schlachthof nach Auschwitz: die NS-Verfolgung der Sinti und Roma aus Bremen, Bremerhaven und Nordwestdeutschland. Marburg: Tectum Verlag, 1999. (D 810 .G9 H47 1999) [Find in a library near you]

    Documents the deportations of Sinti and Roma to Auschwitz from the city of Bremen, the central transfer point (“Sammelstelle”) for Sinti and Roma deported from Northern Germany. Describes ongoing discrimination against Sinti and Roma Holocaust survivors after the war. Features a topically arranged bibliography.

  • Heuss, Herman. Darmstadt, Auschwitz: die Verfolgung der Sinti in Darmstadt. Darmstadt: Verband Deutscher Sinti und Roma, Landesverband Hessen, 1995. (DX 229 .H48 1995) [Find in a library near you]

    A regional history of Nazi persecution of Sinti and Roma in Darmstadt. Includes photographs, reproductions of Nazi documents concerning deportations, eyewitness testimonies, and a short bibliography. Volume 1 of the series Hornhaut auf der Seele documenting the Sinti and Roma genocide in the region of Hessen.

  • Heuss, Herbert. Die Verfolgung der Sinti in Mainz und Rheinhessen: 1933-1945. Landau: Verband Deutscher Sinti, Landesverband Rheinland-Pfalz, 1996. (DX 229 .H48 1996) [Find in a library near you]

    A regional history and supplement to the exhibit, Die Überlebenden sind die Ausnahme (“The Survivors are the Exception”), documenting the persecution of Sinti and Roma in the area of Rheinland-Pfalz during the Third Reich. Includes photographs, eyewitness testimonies, and a short bibliography.

  • Kenrick, Donald, and Grattan Puxon. Sinti und Roma: die Vernichtung eines Volkes im NS-Staat. Göttingen: Gesellschaft der bedrohten Völker, 1981. (DX 145 .K45 1981) [Find in a library near you]

    A comprehensive history of the persecution of Sinti and Roma in Europe, with emphasis on the Holocaust period. Includes a chapter on the unique problems and challenges faced by Sinti and Roma survivors of the Holocaust.

  • König, Ulrich. Sinti und Roma unter dem Nationalsozialismus: Verfolgung und Widerstand. Bochum: N. Brockmeyer, 1989. (DX 145 .K66 1989) [Find in a library near you]

    A scholarly work examining various incidences of Sinti and Roma resistance against the Nazis. Includes an extensive listing of sources.

  • Krausnick, Michail. Wo sind sie hingekommen?: der unterschlagene Völkermord an den Sinti und Roma. Gerlingen: Bleicher, 1995. (DX 229 .K73 1995) [Find in a library near you]

    A report on the persecution of Sinti and Roma during the Third Reich as told through eyewitness accounts and original documents. Focuses on the fates of individual victims, such as the Sinti children who were used in medical experiments at the Nazi clinic, St. Josefspflege, in Mulfingen.

  • Riechert, Hansjörg. Im Schatten von Auschwitz: die nationalsozialistische Sterilisationspolitik gegenüber Sinti und Roma. New York: Waxmann, 1995. (D 810 .G9 R54 1995) [Find in a library near you]

    Examines the forced sterilization of Sinti and Roma individuals under the racial laws and eugenics programs enacted under National Socialism. Features a list of related archival sources and a bibliography arranged by time period.

  • Rom und Sinti Union e.V. Bericht zur Lage der Rom und Cinti in Hamburg: Versuch einer Dokumentation. Hamburg: Rom und Cinti Union e.V., 1982. (DX 229 .B47 1982) [Find in a library near you]

    Documents the persecution of Sinti and Roma during the Third Reich and explores existing discrimination against these minority groups in modern German society, specifically in Hamburg.

  • Rose, Romani. Das Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma. Heidelberg: Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma, 1997. (D 804.5 .G85 D65 1997) [Find in a library near you]

    An account of the formal dedication ceremony of the Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma (“Documentary and Cultural Center for German Sinti and Roma”) in Heidelberg on March 16, 1997. Features official speeches delivered on that occasion, numerous photographs of the opening, and a chronology of the Sinti and Roma genocide. Also describes the services provided by the Center, including an archives, a library, and a permanent exhibition on the persecution of Sinti and Roma during the Third Reich.

  • Rose, Romani. Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma. Der nationalsozialistische Völkermord an den Sinti und Roma. Heidelberg: Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma, 1995. (Oversize D 810 .G9 N37 1995) [Find in a library near you]

    A collection of photographs, Nazi documents, family memorabilia, and survivor testimonies documenting the persecution and extermination of Sinti and Roma during the Third Reich. Includes the recollections of a survivor who was in a group of children used by the Nazis for pseudo-scientific racial and anthropological studies at the Nazi clinic, St. Josefspflege, in Mulfingen.

  • Rose, Romani, and Walter Weiss. Sinti und Roma im Dritten Reich: das Programm der Vernichtung durch Arbeit. Göttingen: Lamuv, 1991. (DX 145 .R67 1991) [Find in a library near you]

    An analysis of the Nazi program “Vernichtung durch Arbeit” (“extermination through work”), under which Sinti and Roma were forced to work as slave laborers for a number of prominent German companies. Features original documents, photographs, and survivor testimonies.

  • Sandner, Peter. Frankfurt, Auschwitz: die nationalsozialistische Verfolgung der Sinti und Roma in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main: Brandes & Aspel, 1998. (D 804.5 .G85 S364 1998) [Find in a library near you]

    A regional history of Nazi persecution of Sinti and Roma in Frankfurt am Main. Includes information on legal proceedings against Nazi perpetrators after the war, including Eva Justin, a race scientist who performed pseudo-scientific studies on Sinti children. Features a unique list of names of Sinti and Roma victims deported from Frankfurt am Main, compiled from various archival sources. Volume 4 of the series Hornhaut auf der Seele documenting the Sinti and Roma genocide in the region of Hessen.

  • Schenk, Michael. Rassismus gegen Sinti und Roma: zur Kontinuität der Zigeunerverfolgung innerhalb der deutschen Gesellschaft von der Weimarer Republik bis in die Gegenwart. New York: P. Lang, 1994. (DX 229 .S354 1994) [Find in a library near you]

    A dissertation on the persecution of Sinti and Roma in Germany, beginning with the early 20th century. Includes laws, statistics, and a comparative analysis of racial theories. Also provides an extensive bibliography, with a majority of the sources listed dating from the period of the Third Reich.

  • Thurner, Erika. Kurzgeschichte des Nationalsozialistischen Zigeunerlagers in Lackenbach (1940 bis 1945). Eisenstadt: Amt der Bgld. Landesregierung, Sozialabteilung: Landesfonds für die Opfer des Krieges und Faschismus, 1984. (DX 221 .T582 1984) [Find in a library near you]

    A short history of the Zigeunerlager (“concentration camp for Gypsies”) in Lackenbach, Austria. Features numerous photographs and facsimiles of original documents concerning slave labor supplied by the concentration camp's administration to local businesses.

  • von Hase-Mihalik, Eva, and Doris Kreuzkamp. Du kriegst auch einen schönen Wohnwagen: Zwangslager für Sinti und Roma während des Nationalsozialismus in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main: Brandes & Aspel, 1990. (DX 229 .H37 1990) [Find in a library near you]

    Explores the history of the “Zigeunerlager” (“concentration camp for Gypsies”) in Frankfurt-Riederwald, established in 1937. Features numerous photographs and reproductions of original documents concerning the deportations of Sinti and Roma to the “Zigeunerlager” and the trial of the camp commander after the war.

  • Wippermann, Wolfgang. Das Leben in Frankfurt zur NS-Zeit. Frankfurt am Main: W. Kramer, 1986. (DD 901 .F78 W56 1986) [Find in a library near you]

    A four-volume series on the city of Frankfurt am Main under National Socialism. Volume II, “Die nationalsozialistische Zigeunerverfolgung” (“The National Socialist persecution of Gypsies”) provides a detailed chronology of events pertaining to the treatment of Sinti and Roma in Frankfurt, including transcripts of Nazi memoranda and official correspondence concerning deportations and racial laws. Also includes a short bibliography.

  • Zimmermann, Michael. Rassenutopie und Genozid: die nationalsozialistische “Lösung der Zigeunerfrage.” Hamburg: Christians, 1996. (D 810 .G9 Z55 1996) [Find in a library near you]

    Examines the persecution of Sinti and Roma under National Socialism. Includes separate chapters on Nazi policies and actions against Sinti and Roma in various regions and occupied territories of Europe. Features a detailed, extensively annotated bibliography arranged by type of source.

  • Zimmermann, Michael. Verfolgt, vertrieben, vernichtet: die nationalsozialistische Vernichtungspolitik gegen Sinti und Roma. Essen: Klartext, 1989. (D 810 .G9 Z56 1989) [Find in a library near you]

    An historical analysis of the systematic persecution and annihilation of Sinti and Roma under National Socialism. Includes transcripts of Nazi memoranda and correspondence concerning eugenics and racial studies, forced sterilizations, and other actions against the Sinti and Roma populations.

  • Zülch, Tilman. In Auschwitz vergast, bis heute verfolgt: zur Situation der Roma (Zigeuner) in Deutschland und Europa. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1979. (DX 229 .I52 1979) [Find in a library near you]

    Explores the persecution of Sinti and Roma under National Socialism and the discrimination against these minority groups in post-war Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Examines how Sinti and Roma Holocaust survivors have been treated by society, and discusses nascent Roma rights movements.

Biographies

English

  • Adelsberger, Lucie. Auschwitz: A Doctor’s Story. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1995. (DS 135 .G5 A33313 1995) [Find in a library near you]

    A memoir by a Jewish female physician shipped to Auschwitz and put to work in the infirmary of the camp’s Gypsy section. Includes descriptions of some of the medical experiments performed on Gypsy prisoners and the conditions they faced in the camps.

  • Bársony, János, Ágnes Daróczi, and Gábor Komáromy. Pharrajimos: The Fate of the Roma During the Holocaust. New York: International Debate Education Association, 2008. (D 804.5.G85 P43513 2008)  [Find in a library near you]

    Explores the life and history of the Hungarian Roma before World War II and during the Holocaust. Includes twelve first-person narratives of survivors and a detailed list of events by location in Hungary.

  • Braun, Hans. “A Sinto Survivor Speaks.” In Papers from the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings, Gypsy Lore Society, North American Chapter, edited by Joanne Grumet, 165-171. New York: The Society, 1986. (DX 103 .G97 1984) [Find in a library near you]

    An autobiographical account of one Gypsy survivor’s experiences in the Holocaust. Includes stories of his attempts to evade the Gestapo and his eventual capture. Also reports on the deaths of his family members in Auschwitz.

  • Friedman, Ina R. “Bubili: A Young Gypsy’s Fight for Survival.” In The Other Victims: First-Person Stories of Non-Jews Persecuted by the Nazis, 7-24. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990. (D 811 .A2 F759 1990) [Find in a library near you]

    Written for young adults. Relates the story of Bubili, an Austrian Sinti arrested by the Germans and sent to Dachau. Additional personal narratives tell of Christians, Jehovah’s Witnesses, deaf people, homosexuals, blacks, and other non-Jews who suffered at the hands of the Nazis before and during World War II. 

  • Sonneman, Toby. Shared Sorrows: A Gypsy Family Remembers the Holocaust. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 2002. (D 804.5 .G85 S65 2002) [Find in a library near you]

    Tells the story of a Gypsy family against the backdrop of a Jewish one, detailing and examining their shared sufferings under the Nazis. Based on interviews the author had with Rosa Mettbach, a Roma survivor living in Munich, who describes the experiences of her and her family during the Holocaust. Includes excerpts from those interviews and numerous photos. Also includes end notes and an index.

  • Yoors, Jan. Crossing: A Journal of Survival and Resistance in World War II. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971. (D 810 .G5 Y66 1971) [Find in a library near you]

    Recounts the author’s experiences as the adopted son of a Gypsy family and as a resistance fighter in Nazi-occupied Europe, pursued, imprisoned and beaten by the Gestapo.

German

  • Franz, Philomena. Zwischen Liebe und Hass: ein Zigeunerleben. Freiburg: Herder, 1992. (DX 127 .F73 A3 1992) [Find in a library near you]

    An autobiography of a Sinti woman who survived Auschwitz. Uses short anecdotes and vignettes to describe her deportation and the pain and suffering she endured in the camp. Includes a chapter on her life after the war. Features an essay by Wolfgang Benz on the developments that turned latent discrimination against Sinti and Roma into full-scale genocide under the Nazis.

  • Stojka, Ceija, and Karin Berger. Wir leben im Verborgenen: Erinnerungen einer Rom-Zigeunerin. Wien: Picus, 1989. (DX 127 .S76 A3 1989) [Find in a library near you]

    The first of a two-part autobiography of Ceija Stojka, in which she recounts her life as a Roma growing up in Austria during the Holocaust and the hardships she had to endure in the concentration camps Auschwitz, Ravensbrück and Bergen-Belsen. Includes numerous family photographs and an interview with the author.

  • Stojka, Ceija, and Karin Berger. Reisende auf dieser Welt: Aus dem Leben einer Rom-Zigeunerin. Wien: Picus, 1992 (DX 127 .S76 A3 1992) [Find in a library near you]

    The second part of Ceija Stojka's autobiography in which she recounts her life in Austria following her liberation from Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Includes numerous family photographs.

  • Stojka, Karl, and Reinhard Pohanka. Auf der ganzen Welt zu Hause: Das Leben und Wandern des Zigeuners Karl Stojka. Wien: Picus, 1994. (ND 511 .S76 A2 1994) [Find in a library near you]

    A biography of Karl Stojka, who was just a young Roma boy of eleven when he was sent with his family to Auschwitz. Retraces his early life in Austria and then his deportation to and life in the camps. Also describes his life after the war in the French Legion, and later living in Germany, Spain, and the United States. Includes numerous photographs.

Related Art

English

  • Milton, Sybil. The Story of Karl Stojka: A Childhood in Birkenau. Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 1992. (N 8217 .H6 M55 1992) [Find in a library near you]

    A catalogue of twenty paintings created by Karl Stojka, a Roma survivor of the Holocaust. Begins with an introductory essay about Karl Stojka and his family in the context of the fate of Austrian Gypsies between 1938 and 1945. Includes a glossary of terms, a chronology of the persecution of German and Austrian Gypsies, and suggestions for teachers who might want to use the work as a classroom resource.

  • Stojka, Karl. Gas. Wien: K. Stojka, 1996. (Oversize ND 511.5 S87 A4 1996) [Find in a library near you]

    A catalogue of ninety-one colored paintings portraying life in the camps by Karl Stojka, a Roma survivor of the Holocaust. Includes a short biography of the artist, a summary of the Nazi persecution of Sinti and Roma, a brief essay about the artist's work, and a chronology of his exhibits. Text in both German and English.

German

  • Stojka, Ceija. Bilder & Texte 1989-1995. Wien: Patricia Meier-Rogan, 1995. (Oversize ND 511 .S86 C45 1995) [Find in a library near you]

    A collection of paintings and poems through which Ceija Stojka recounts her life as a Roma in pre-Holocaust Austria and her suffering in the camps at Ravensbrück and Bergen-Belsen.

  • Stojka, Karl. Ein Kind in Birkenau. Wien: Karl Stojka, 1990. (ND 511 .S76 A4 1990) [Find in a library near you]

    A catalog to an exhibition of autobiographical paintings through which Karl Stojka recounts his and his family’s ordeal in several concentration camps, including Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Related Fiction

  • Florence, Ronald. The Gypsy Man. New York: Villard Books, 1985. (PS 3556 .L5853 G97 1985) [Find in a library near you]

    A fictional story that involves a Gypsy survivor of the Holocaust charged with murdering a woman he holds responsible for the evils he and his people suffered years before. Relates the experiences of Gypsies in the Nazi death camps.

  • Hackl, Erich. Farewell Sidonia. New York: Fromm International, 1992. (PT 2668 .A2717 A2713 1992) [Find in a library near you]

    A fictional work based on the story of an abandoned infant Gypsy girl who is adopted by an Austrian couple during the Nazi period. Neighbors turn her into the authorities, and she is sent to a concentration camp, where she eventually dies. Portrays anti-Gypsy attitudes, policies and legislation in telling Sidonia’s story.

  • Kanfer, Stefan. The Eighth Sin. New York: Random House, 1978. (PZ 4 .K1634 E5 1978) [Find in a library near you]

    A novel involving a Romanian Gypsy survivor who is adopted by American Jews. Set primarily in New York City, where the survivor discovers and exacts revenge on a Gypsy kapo traitor in hiding.

  • Ramati, Alexander. And the Violins Stopped Playing: A Story of the Gypsy Holocaust. [Sevenoaks]: Coronet, 1986. (PS 3568 .A439 A63 1986) [Find in a library near you]

    A story of the Gypsy Holocaust as told by a teenage Polish Gypsy boy. Includes descriptions of Mengele’s horrifying medical experiments in the camps.

Museum Web Resources

Additional

Subject Files

Ask at the reference desk to see the subject file labeled “Gypsies” containing newspaper and periodical articles.

Subject Headings

To search library catalogs or other electronic search tools for materials on the Gypsy Holocaust, use the following Library of Congress subject headings to retrieve the most relevant citations:

  • Romanies–Nazi persecution
  • Romanies–Legal status, laws, etc.–Germany
  • Romanies–Government policy–Germany
  • Romanies–Germany–History
  • Romanies–History–20th century