Raoul Wallenberg (b. 1912) was a Swedish diplomat who saved the lives of tens of thousands of Jews in Budapest in the second half of 1944. With the support of the World Jewish Congress and the American War Refugee Board, the Swedish Foreign Ministry sent Wallenberg to Budapest in July 1944 to help protect the 200,000 Jews who remained in the capital. From October 15, when the Arrow Cross seized power, to the liberation of the capital three months later, Wallenberg saved Jews through a variety of means—by issuing thousands of protective documents, by establishing the International Ghetto of protected houses, and by securing their release from deportation trains, death march convoys, and labor service brigades—all at significant risk to himself.
Wallenberg was detained by Soviet agents on January 17, 1945, soon after the Soviet forces occupied Budapest, and thereafter disappeared without a trace. On December 22, 2000, the Russian prosecutor’s office issued a formal statement acknowledging that Wallenberg was held in a Soviet prison as a “socially dangerous” person for two and a half years before he died. This statement followed one by Alexander Yakovlev, the Russian official appointed to investigate the Wallenberg affair, who stated in November 2000 that Wallenberg had been executed in 1947. However, since the Russians further indicated that all records relating to Wallenberg’s arrest have been destroyed, no evidence of his imprisonment or death apparently exists. Consequently, many questions about Wallenberg’s fate remain unanswered.
For his actions on behalf of Hungarian Jewry, Yad Vashem awarded Wallenberg the title of “Righteous Among the Nations” in 1963, and the United States granted him honorary citizenship in 1981. In December 2000 Russia’s general prosecutor signed a verdict formally rehabilitating Wallenberg and his driver.
The following bibliography was compiled to guide readers to materials on Raoul Wallenberg that are in the Library’s collection. It is not meant to be exhaustive. Annotations are provided to help the user determine the item’s focus, and call numbers for the Museum’s Library are given in parentheses following each citation. Those unable to visit might be able to find these works in a nearby public library or acquire them through interlibrary loan. Follow the “Find in a library near you” link in each citation and enter your zip code at the Open WorldCat search screen. The results of that search indicate all libraries in your area that own that particular title. Talk to your local librarian for assistance.
Bejski, Moshe. “The ‘Righteous Among the Nations’ and their Part in the Rescue of Jews.” In Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust: Proceedings of the Second Yad Vashem International Historical Conference, Jerusalem, April 8-11, 1974, edited by Yisrael Gutman and Efraim Zuroff, 627-647. New York: Ktav Pub. House, 1978. (D 810 .R4 Y19 1974) [Find in a library near you]
Briefly summarizes Wallenberg’s rescue efforts, as well as his mysterious disappearance, while examining the activities of a handful of those declared to be “Righteous Among the Nations.” (See particularly pages 637-638.) The article appears within a collection of lectures and discussions from a conference regarding those that supported and hindered efforts to save Jews.
Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University, 2000. (DS 135 .H9 B724 2000) [Find in a library near you]
Reviews the history of the Holocaust in Hungary, particularly toward the end of the war. Includes a section on Wallenberg (pages 1235-1241) describing his dealings with Eichmann and the historical circumstances in which his rescue efforts took place.
Bronowski, Alexander. They Were Few. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1991. (D 804.65 .B7613 1991) [Find in a library near you]
The first part of this work is the author’s personal narrative. The second part presents brief accounts of Righteous Gentiles from various countries, including a seven-page account of Raoul Wallenberg’s activities in Hungary. Based completely on original sources presented in the files of Yad Vashem.
Cahana, Alice Lok. From Ashes to the Rainbow: A Tribute to Raoul Wallenberg. Los Angeles: Hebrew Union College Skirball Museum, 1986. (N 7417.6 .C3 1986) [Find in a library near you]
Exhibition catalog of paintings and poetry dedicated to Raoul Wallenberg by an artist whose father Wallenberg saved. Includes numerous illustrations, most in color, an interview with the artist, and two essays, one by Alfred Gottschalk on Raoul Wallenberg and the other by Sybil Milton on art and the Holocaust.
Friedman, Philip. Their Brothers’ Keepers. New York: Holocaust Library, 1978. (D 810 .R4 F74 1978) [Find in a library near you]
A collection of stories revealing how some Christians worked to rescue Jews during the Holocaust. The nine pages concerning Wallenberg outline his work as part of the rescue efforts by the Swedish government. Also includes a chapter on the situation in Hungary during the war and some of the other rescue activities that occurred there.
Meltzer, Milton. “A Legend Among Jews.” In Rescue: The Story of How Gentiles Saved Jews in the Holocaust, 103-115. New York: Harper & Row, 1988. (D 810 .R4 M247 1988) [Find in a library near you]
Tells the story of Raoul Wallenberg, relating information about his early life and then his mission in Hungary during the Holocaust. Describes the conditions facing Jews in Budapest and Wallenberg’s activities to rescue them. Written for young adults.
Paldiel, Mordecai. “Raoul Wallenberg.” In The Path of the Righteous: Gentile Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust, 319-324. Hoboken, NJ: Ktav Publishing House, 1993. (D 810 .R4 P35 1992) [Find in a library near you]
Provides a general overview of Wallenberg’s life and mission in Hungary. Includes portions of eyewitness testimonies by some of the people Wallenberg saved.
Skoglund, Elizabeth R. A Quiet Courage: Per Anger, Wallenberg’s Co-liberator of Hungarian Jews. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1997. (DS 135 .H9 S53 1997) [Find in a library near you]
A biography focusing on Wallenberg’s colleague and fellow rescuer at the Swedish delegation, Per Anger. Provides details of the rescue mission from Anger’s perspective. Reviews post-war diplomatic attempts to ascertain what happened to Wallenberg.
Yahil, Leni. “Raoul Wallenberg.” In Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, edited by Israel Gutman, 1588-1591. New York: Macmillan, 1990. (Reference D 804.25 .E527 1990 v.4) [Find in a library near you]
Focuses on Wallenberg’s rescue efforts within the larger context of rescue efforts by the Swedish government working in conjunction with international Jewish organizations.
Adachi, Agnes. Child of the Winds: My Mission with Raoul Wallenberg. Chicago: Adams Press, 1989. (DS 135 .H93 A332 1989) [Find in a library near you]
An autobiography written by one of Raoul Wallenberg’s associates in Budapest in 1944. Describes the author’s post-war involvement in Wallenberg remembrance activities and organizations.
Anger, Per. With Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest: Memories of the War Years in Hungary. Washington, DC: The Holocaust Library, 1995. (DL 870 .A64 A3513 1995) [Find in a library near you]
First-hand testimony by a friend and colleague of Wallenberg at the Swedish Foreign Ministry. Further explores the situation in Hungary at the end of World War II and describes post-war efforts to find Wallenberg. Includes many photographs and documents related to Wallenberg’s work. The Library also has an edition in Swedish under the title, Med Raoul Wallenberg i Budapest: Minnen Från Krigsåren i Ungern, and in Hungarian under the title, Raoul Wallenberggel Budapesten: Visszaemlekezesek a Haborus Evek Magyarorszagara.
Bierman, John. Righteous Gentile: The Story of Raoul Wallenberg, Missing Hero of the Holocaust. New York: Penguin Books, 1995. (D 804.66 .W35 B54 1995) [Find in a library near you]
Details Wallenberg’s life, with the focus primarily on his mission in Hungary and information concerning his fate after the war. Includes Wallenberg family photos and images from the Holocaust. Based on the Wallenberg family papers, as well as interviews with Wallenberg’s colleagues and Holocaust survivors.
Cherry, Robert. “Raoul Wallenberg: Savior of Hungarian Jewry?” Midstream (April 1995): 17-21. (Library Microfilm) [Find in a library near you]
Critically examines the strategy employed by Wallenberg in the rescue of Jews, calling for a more accurate assessment of the number of Jews he actually saved, and explores how and why Wallenberg’s heroism has been exaggerated.
Daniel, Jamie, and Michael Nicholson. Raoul Wallenberg: One Man Against Nazi Terror. Milwaukee, WI: G. Stevens Children’s Books, 1992. (D 809 .S8 W3265 1992) [Find in a library near you]
Relates Wallenberg’s life and rescue mission while also providing a general overview of the Holocaust and its aftermath. Written for young adults as part of the People Who Made a Difference series.
Derogy, Jacques. Raoul Wallenberg: Le Juste de Budapest. [Paris]: Stock, 1994. (D 809 .S8 D47 1994) [Find in a library near you]
Describes Wallenberg’s work in Budapest during the war, along with a discussion of his postwar fate. [French]
Gann, Christoph. Raoul Wallenberg: soviel Menschen retten als möglich. München: Verlag C. H. Beck, 1999. (D 804.66 .W35 G36 1999) [Find in a library near you]
Comprehensive biography about Wallenberg that also discusses the newest evidence and rumors that have surfaced about his disappearance. Includes numerous photos, some from Wallenberg’s childhood, detailed endnotes, a bibliography, and an index. [German]
Handler, Andrew. A Man for All Connections: Raoul Wallenberg and the Hungarian State Apparatus, 1944-1945. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996. (DS 135 .H9 H3573 1996) [Find in a library near you]
Focuses on those in Hungarian society and government who were pivotal to Wallenberg’s mission. Also provides a brief overview of politics in Hungary from 1944 to the end of the war.
Haspel, Rachel Oestreicher. Raoul Wallenberg: A Hero for Our Time. [New York: Raoul Wallenberg Committee of the United States, 1985?]. (D 804.66 .W35 R359 1985) [Find in a library near you]
A booklet based on the tribute to Raoul Wallenberg held on March 14, 1985 by the Raoul Wallenberg Committee of the United States. Reviews Wallenberg’s life and mission. Includes brief written statements by President Ronald Reagan, Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme, and Jeane Kirkpatrick, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. Provides a detailed list of evidence concerning Wallenberg’s post-war fate.
Joseph, Gilbert. Mission Sans Retour: L’Affaire Wallenberg. Paris: A. Michel, 1982. (D 809 .S8 W3245 1982) [Find in a library near you]
Detailed account of Wallenberg’s work in Budapest to save Hungarian Jews during the war. Includes reproductions of original documents and letters, a bibliography, and an index. [French]
Larsen, Anita. Raoul Wallenberg: Missing Diplomat. New York: Crestwood House, 1992. (D 809 .S8 W3252 1992) [Find in a library near you]
Provides a general overview of Wallenberg’s activities in Budapest and explores the mystery of his disappearance. Written for young adults as part of the History’s Mysteries series.
Lester, Elenore. Wallenberg, The Man in the Iron Web. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982. (D 809 .S8 W325 1982) [Find in a library near you]
Reviews Wallenberg’s role during the Holocaust. One third of the book is biographical, one third historical treatment of the Holocaust and Wallenberg’s rescue mission, and one third review of post-war attempts to discover Wallenberg’s fate. Written by a journalist who was one of the first to report Wallenberg’s story in the press.
Lévai, Jenő. Raoul Wallenberg: His Remarkable Life, Heroic Battles and the Secret of his Mysterious Disappearance. Melbourne: WhiteAnt Occasional Publishing, 1989. (D 804.66 .W35 L4813 1989) [Find in a library near you]
A documentary account of Raoul Wallenberg’s rescue activities on behalf of Hungarian Jews. Includes reproductions and translations of a number of letters, documents, and testimonies. The Library also has an edition in Hungarian under the title Raoul Wallenberg: Regényes Élete, Hősi Küzdelmei, Rejtélyes Eltűnésének Titka.
Linnea, Sharon. Raoul Wallenberg: The Man who Stopped Death. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1993. (DS 135 .H9 L53 1993) [Find in a library near you]
Tells the personal story of Raoul Wallenberg from his life as a young man through his disappearance at the end of the war. Written for young adults.
Marton, Kati. Wallenberg. New York: Random House, 1982. (D 809 .S8 W326 1982) [Find in a library near you]
A biography of Wallenberg written by an award-winning journalist and author, and based on interviews with Wallenberg’s family members, friends, and colleagues. Provides a very personal account of Wallenberg while placing him in the larger context of the Holocaust.
McArthur, Debra. Raoul Wallenberg: Rescuing Thousands from Nazis’ Grasp. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2005. (D 804.66 .W35 M33 2005) [Find in a library near you]
Documents Wallenberg’s activities during the Holocaust and his mysterious disappearance following Soviet liberation of Budapest. Includes a timeline, endnotes, glossary, bibliography, and an index.
Paldiel, Mordecai. “Budapest: The Apocalypse.” Chapter 8 in Diplomat Heroes of the Holocaust. Jersey City, NJ: Ktav Publishing House, 2007. (D 804.65 .P347 2007) [Find in a library near you]
Highlights the rescue activities of Wallenberg and 13 other diplomats in Budapest. Includes a bibliography, endnotes, and an index.
Streissguth, Thomas. Raoul Wallenberg: Swedish Diplomat and Humanitarian. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2001. (D 804.66 .W35 S77 2001) [Find in a library near you]
Discusses Wallenberg’s life and activities in Budapest and later disappearance. Part of the Holocaust Biographies series. Includes illustrations, a timeline, glossary, bibliography, and index.
Swedish Institute. Raoul Wallenberg. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish Institute, 1988. (D 809 .S8 R3613 1988) [Find in a library near you]
A brief overview of Wallenberg’s life and rescue efforts. Includes reproductions and translations of a few reports and documents, some concerning the conditions facing Jews in Hungary during the war, others addressing Wallenberg’s fate.
Tevebaugh-Kenwryck, Neil A. “Raoul Wallenberg, The American War Refugee Board and the Last Minute Effort to Save Hungary’s Jews.” PhD diss., State University of New York at Albany, 2003. (D 809 .S8 T48 2003) [Find in a library near you]
Analyzes Wallenberg’s work and rescue efforts in Budapest and the correlation to efforts made by the American War Refugee Board on behalf of Hungarian Jews. Includes footnotes and a bibliography.
Wallenberg, Raoul. Letters and Dispatches, 1924-1944. New York: Arcade Publishing, 1995. (D 809 .S8 W32 1995) [Find in a library near you]
The first comprehensive collection of Wallenberg’s letters, beginning in 1924, when he was 12, and ending in December 1944, one month before his disappearance.
Yahil, Leni. “Raoul Wallenberg—His Mission and His Activities in Hungary.” Yad Vashem Studies 15 (1983): 7-53. (DS 135 .E83 Y3 v.15) [Find in a library near you]
Details Wallenberg’s rescue activities. Examines shifts in the Swedish government’s foreign policy during the War, as well as the political negotiations and complex economics underlying the rescue mission. Based largely on primary sources.
Berg, Lars G. The Book that Disappeared: What Happened in Budapest. New York: Vantage Press, 1990. (D 809 .S8 W322 1990) [Find in a library near you]
An account of what happened in Budapest and at the Swedish Legation from August 1944 to March 1945 by one who worked closely with Wallenberg. Includes updates on Wallenberg’s disappearance as of the publication date. The title refers to this book’s mysterious removal from circulation soon after its publication in Sweden in 1949.
Gersten, Alan. A Conspiracy of Indifference: The Raoul Wallenberg Story. Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2001. (D 809.S8 G47 2001) [Find in a library near you]
Presents information on the ongoing saga to discover the final whereabouts of Wallenberg. Analyzes materials from American, Hungarian, Swedish, and Soviet sources concerning his disappearance and efforts to locate him. Includes endnotes and a bibliography.
Korey, William. The Last Word on Wallenberg?: New Investigations, New Questions. New York: The American Jewish Committee, 2001. (D 804.66 .W35 K65 2001) [Find in a library near you]
Provides the research synopsis of efforts to track Wallenberg’s whereabouts and fate within the Soviet Union. Includes endnotes.
Larsson, Jan. Raoul Wallenberg. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish Institute, 1995. (D 809 .S8 L37 1995) [Find in a library near you]
Describes Wallenberg’s background and his mission in Hungary and explores his rescue activities as well as his disappearance. Reviews the more recent attempts to discover Wallenberg’s fate. Includes a foreword and postscript by Per Anger.
Marton, Kati. Wallenberg: Missing Hero. New York: Arcade Publishing, 1995. (D 809 .S8 W35 1995) [Find in a library near you]
Revision of Marton’s 1982 book Wallenberg, with a new afterword providing information on attempts to discover Wallenberg’s fate.
Palmklint, Ingrid, and Daniel Larsson, editors. Raoul Wallenberg: Report of the Swedish-Russian Working Group. Stockholm: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Department for Central and Eastern Europe, 2000. (D 804.66 .W35 S84 2000) [Find in a library near you]
Presents the findings of a joint Swedish-Russian research team tasked with tracing Raoul Wallenberg’s postwar fate. Includes a timeline of Wallenberg’s known whereabouts after 1944, a bibliography, and reproductions of original primary sources from Soviet archives relating to the case. Available online at the Government Offices of Sweden Web site.
Rosenfeld, Harvey. Raoul Wallenberg. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1995. (D 804.66 .W35 R67 1995) [Find in a library near you]
Deals primarily with what might have happened to Wallenberg after 1945. Reviews all of the post-war conditions, sightings, and efforts to determine his fate. Sets his story in the larger context of pre-war Hungarian antisemitism and post-war Soviet-Western relations. Includes updated information on efforts to find, commemorate and memorialize Wallenberg and his mission.
Smith, Danny. Lost Hero: Raoul Wallenberg’s Dramatic Quest to Save the Jews of Hungary. London: HarperCollins, 2001. (D 804.66 .W35 S55 2001) [Find in a library near you]
A detailed biography of Wallenberg which includes a chapter on his unsolved disappearance. Reproduces his last report from Budapest and a chronology of reports from the Soviet Union concerning his whereabouts. The Library also has an edition in German under the title, 100000 Juden Gerettet: Raoul Wallenberg und Seine Aussergewöhnliche Mission in Budapest.
Werbell, Frederick E., and Thurston Clarke. Lost Hero: The Mystery of Raoul Wallenberg. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982. (D 809 .S8 W328 1982) [Find in a library near you]
A detailed account of Wallenberg’s mission in Budapest. Reconstructs the principal events of his life from interviews, official Swedish papers, and other published sources. Reviews the information available regarding his post-war fate. Includes some photographs.
Wulf, Josef. Raoul Wallenberg. Berlin: Colloquium Verlag, 1958. (D 809 .S8 W8 1958) [Find in a library near you]
One of the early biographies of Wallenberg. Includes information on what was then known (1958) about his disappearance. The Library also has an edition in French under the title, Raoul Wallenberg: Il Fut Leur Espérance. [German]
Explore our comprehensive entries on the events, people, and places of the Holocaust.
Film and Video
Altmann, Kevin. Raoul Wallenberg Between the Lines [videorecording]. Santa Monica, CA: Rhino Home Video, 1990. (Video Collection) [Find in a library near you]
Examines the political background against which Wallenberg conducted his rescue efforts, especially the lack of refugee assistance provided Jews by the United States. Details the events leading up to his disappearance.
Grede, Kjell. Good Evening Mr. Wallenberg [videorecording]. New York: First Run Features, 2002. (DVD Collection) [Find in a library near you]
Chronicles Wallenberg’s rescue efforts during the last days of the Holocaust in Budapest.
Harel, David. Raoul Wallenberg, Buried Alive [videorecording]. Los Angeles: Direct Cinema, 2007. (DVD Collection) [Find in a library near you]
Examines Wallenberg’s efforts to save Hungarian Jews during the Holocaust, his subsequent disappearance, and reports of his fate. Includes interviews with several survivors whom he saved and with individuals who claim to have seen him alive after the war.
Museum Web Resources
Online article about Raoul Wallenberg and the rescue of Jews in Budapest. Includes links to other Museum resources on the subject.
Ask at the reference desk to see the subject file labeled “Wallenberg, Raoul” containing newspaper and periodical articles.
To search library catalogs or other electronic search tools for materials on Raoul Wallenberg or related topics, use the following Library of Congress subject headings to retrieve the most relevant citations:
- Wallenberg, Raoul, 1912-1947
- Anger, Per, 1913-
- Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)–Hungary
- Righteous Gentiles in the Holocaust
- World War, 1939-1945–Jews–Rescue–Hungary
- World War, 1939-1945–Civilian Relief–Hungary