Born: 1930, Hamburg, Germany
Describes her family's arrival in Bologna and aid received from Italian students before emigrating to Albania [Interview: 1990]
Amid intensifying anti-Jewish measures and the 1938 Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogrom, Johanna's family decided to leave Germany. They obtained visas for Albania, crossed into Italy, and sailed in 1939. They remained in Albania under the Italian occupation and, after Italy surrendered in 1943, under German occupation. The family was liberated after a battle between the Germans and Albanian partisans in December 1944.
Copyright © United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC