Between 1933 and 1945, a variety of groups offered resistance to the Nazi regime, both in Germany and in German-occupied territory. Among the earliest domestic opponents of Nazism were Communists, Socialists, and trade union leaders. In July 1944, a small group of German politicians and military leaders conspired unsuccessfully to assassinate Adolf Hitler. In France, both nationalist and communist resistance movements committed acts of sabotage and assaults on German officials. In February 1941 the Dutch population, led by trade union leaders, mounted a general strike in protest against the brutal treatment of Jews. In the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Greece, guerrilla fighters, called partisans, engaged in sabotage and armed attacks on German personnel and their allies. In August 1944, the Polish Home Army rose against the German occupation forces in Warsaw, fighting for two months. Insurgents of the communist People's Army were also active in sabotage and assaults on German personnel in occupied Poland.
Also in August 1944, Slovak underground leaders launched an uprising against the pro-German government. In May 1942, Czech agents assassinated SS General Reinhard Heydrich in Prague. In retaliation, German SS and police shot all of the men and deported the women and children from the villages of Lidice and Ležáky. Members of other victimized groups resisted the Nazis. In May 1944, SS men ordered Roma prisoners to leave their barracks at the Auschwitz Gypsy family camp (presumably to be sent to the gas chambers). Armed with knives and axes, the Roma refused to leave and the Germans retreated. Jehovah's Witnesses resisted Nazism through defiance. They refused to serve in the German army and, as concentration camp prisoners, organized illegal study groups. Other forms of non-violent resistance included sheltering Jews, listening to forbidden Allied radio broadcasts, and producing clandestine anti-Nazi newspapers.