Anne Frank was one of over one million Jewish children who died in the Holocaust. While in hiding, Anne kept a diary in which she recorded her fears, hopes, and experiences. Found in a secret apartment after the family was arrested, the diary was kept by Miep Gies, one of the people who had helped hide the Franks. It was published after the war in many languages and is used in thousands of middle school and high school curricula around the world. Anne Frank has become a symbol for the lost promise of the children who died in the Holocaust. Anne was born on June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany, to Otto and Edith Frank. For the first 5 years of her life, Anne lived with her parents and older sister, Margot, in an apartment on the outskirts of Frankfurt. After the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, the Franks fled to Amsterdam in the Netherlands. The Germans occupied Amsterdam in May 1940. In July 1942, German authorities and their Dutch collaborators began to deport Jews from the Netherlands to killing centers in German-occupied Poland.
During the first half of July 1942, Anne and her family went into hiding with other Jewish families. For two years, they lived in a secret attic apartment behind the office of the family-owned business at 263 Prinsengracht Street, which Anne referred to in her diary as the Secret Annex. Friends and colleagues smuggled food and clothing to the Franks at great risk to their own lives. On August 4, 1944, the Gestapo (German Secret State Police) discovered the hiding place after being tipped off by an anonymous Dutch caller and arrested the inhabitants. In September 1944, authorities placed the Franks, and the four others hiding with them, on a train transport to Auschwitz. Selected for labor due to their youth, Anne and her sister were transferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in northern Germany in late October 1944. Both sisters died of typhus in March 1945, just a few weeks before British troops liberated the camp. Anne's mother died in Auschwitz in early January 1945. Anne's father, Otto, survived the war.