The Holocaust: A Learning Site for Students
Antisemitism is a starting place for trying to understand the tragedy that would befall countless numbers of people during the Holocaust.
Auschwitz was the largest camp established by the Germans.
In 1933, about 500,000 Jews lived in Germany, less than one percent of the total population.
Near the end of the war, when Germany's military force was collapsing, the Allied armies closed in on the Nazi concentration camps.
In the months following the Wannsee Conference, the Nazi regime continued to carry out their plans for the "Final Solution."
Although Jews were the main target of Nazi hatred, they were not the only group persecuted.
Between 1933 and 1941, the Nazis aimed to make Germany judenrein (cleansed of Jews) by making life so difficult for them that they would be forced to leave the country.
The origin of the "Final Solution," the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jewish people, remains uncertain.
9. Forced Labor
In German-occupied areas, the Nazis singled out Jewish laborers for cruel treatment.
Germany planned to annex most of the conquered eastern territories after they had been Germanized.
Millions of Jews lived in eastern Europe.
In the early 1930s, the mood in Germany was grim.
When the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, Jews were living in every country of Europe.
14. Jewish Partisans
Some Jews who managed to escape from ghettos and camps formed their own fighting units.
According to the census of June 1933, the Jewish population of Germany consisted of about 500,000 people.
The Warsaw ghetto uprising inspired revolts in other ghettos and in killing centers.
After deportation trains arrived at the killing centers, guards ordered the deportees to get out and form a line.
Soviet soldiers were the first to liberate concentration camp prisoners in the final stages of the war.
Life in the ghettos was usually unbearable.
In 1939, the German government conducted a census of all persons living in Germany.
After the German army invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, a new stage in the Holocaust began.
Wartime, Adolf Hitler suggested, "was the best time for the elimination of the incurably ill."
23. Nazi Camp System
The Nazi camp system began as a system of repression directed against political opponents of the Nazi state.
Once they succeeded in ending democracy and turning Germany into a one-party dictatorship, the Nazis orchestrated a massive propaganda campaign to win the loyalty and cooperation of Germans.
25. Nazi Racism
For years before Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany, he was obsessed with ideas about race.
26. Nazi Rule
Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933, bringing an end to German democracy.
After Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January 1933, he moved quickly to turn Germany into a one-party dictatorship and to organize the police power necessary to enforce Nazi policies.
On the night of November 9, 1938, violence against Jews broke out across the Reich.
At the annual party rally held in Nuremberg in 1935, the Nazis announced new laws which institutionalized many of the racial theories prevalent in Nazi ideology.
After the war, some of those responsible for crimes committed during the Holocaust were brought to trial.
As the Jews were the main targets of Nazi genocide, the victims of the killing centers were overwhelmingly Jewish.
Some Jews survived the "Final Solution," the Nazi plan to kill the Jews of Europe, by hiding or escaping from German-controlled Europe.
Most individuals in occupied Europe did not actively collaborate in the Nazi genocide.
Despite the high risk of being caught by police with the help of their many informers, some individuals and groups attempted to resist Nazism even in Germany.
35. SS Police State
An important tool of Nazi terror was the Protective Squad (Schutzstaffel), or SS, which began as a special guard for Adolf Hitler and other party leaders.
36. The Survivors
For the survivors, returning to life as it had been before the Holocaust was impossible.
The voyage of the St.
On January 20, 1942, fifteen high-ranking Nazi party and German government leaders gathered for an important meeting.
It was not until late in the war that the United States attempted to rescue Jews from the Holocaust.
Many Jews in ghettos across eastern Europe tried to organize resistance against the Germans and to arm themselves with smuggled and homemade weapons.
During World War II, Germany overran much of Europe using a new tactic called the "Blitzkrieg" (lightning war).
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