Is it possible that on the small European peninsula, twenty-five states live coast to coast in international anarchy, without a similar state of affairs, leading to the most terrible political, economic, and cultural catastrophe? Divided Europe leads to war, oppression, misery; united Europe leads to peace and prosperity. -Pan Europa, 1923
Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi
WORKS BURNED All works published before May 1933
Count Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi (1894-1972) was founder of the "Pan-Europe" movement. Of Dutch, Greek, Bohemian, and Japanese descent, his parents had met while his father served as Austrian ambassador to the court of Japan. Coudenhove-Kalergi studied philosophy and history in Vienna, receiving a doctorate in 1916. He published Pan Europa in 1923, marking the foundation of the Pan-European movement. This movement aimed to collect the nation states of Europe into a formal political union. In 1926, the first Congress of the Pan-European Union met in Vienna, and the 2,000 delegates elected Coudenhove-Kalergi president of the Central Council. The Nazis attacked Coudenhove-Kalergi even before their rise to power. The Nazi "house organ," the Eher Publishing House, devoted an entire booklet to attacking him; Hitler had different plans for uniting Europe. Coudenhove-Kalergi had to flee his native Austria in 1938, seeking asylum first in France, then in the United States. He returned to Europe in 1947 and continued to work for a European union.