Kristallnacht: The Night of Broken Glass
1938 marked an important turning point in Nazi anti-Jewish policies. On November 9, 1938, the Nazis orchestrated a wave of pogroms against Jews throughout the German Reich, which by then included Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia. In the space of a few hours, thousands of synagogues and Jewish businesses and homes were damaged or destroyed, at least 91 persons were killed, and 30,000 Jewish males were transported to concentration camps. This event came to be called Kristallnacht (“Night of Broken Glass”) for the shattered store windowpanes that carpeted German streets.
In the aftermath of the violence, the Nazi regime fined the German Jewish community one billion reichsmarks (equal to about $400 million) for the pogroms, drove Jews from the German economy and society, and accelerated forced emigration.
Location: Opening Floor
Learn more about the themes covered on this floor of the exhibition