Acts of Violence
Civilians were targeted by both rebel groups and government forces. In the days that followed the assassination of President Ndadye on October 21, 1993, it is estimated that between 50,000 and 100,000 people were killed. Although numbers remain contentious, many experts believe that as many Tutsi died at the hands of Hutu mobs as Hutu in the course of the repression. A panel convened by the UN Security Council called the massacres of Tutsi in the days immediately following the assassination "acts of genocide."
The army established dozens of "regroupment camps" throughout the country, in order to separate the Hutu rural population from Hutu militias. Between 300,000 and 700,000 people were forced from their homes into these crowded, unsafe, insanitary camps, where many died. The capital Bujumbura became ethnically cleansed -- with Tutsi and Hutu living in separate enclaves.
The fighting continued even after the signing of a peace accord in 2000. All sides committed atrocities, killing and raping civilians, and looting. Additionally, the government engaged in arbitrary arrests and discrimination against Hutu. In total, it is estimated that the civil war resulted in the death of an estimated 300,000 people, the flight of 500,000 refugees, and the internal displacement of 800,000 persons.