Individual Responsibility and Resistance During the Holocaust
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Student Handout and Teacher's Rubric PDF version »
Laura Pritchard, Nansemond-Suffolk Academy, Suffolk, Virginia
STUDENT WORK SAMPLES
Excerpt from a presentation on "The White Rose"Notes for the presentation:
- The White Rose stands for resistance to tyranny.
- In 1942 German students and teachers wrote seven leaflets going against Hitler.
- Hans & Sophie School (brother and sister), Christoph Probst, Willi Graf, Alexander Schmorell, and Kurt Huber (professor)
- First leaflet, "Leaflets of the White Rose," talked about Germans who did not do anything but go with Hitler; they criticized the Germans. Summer/fall 1942
- Three more were written; each one made a bigger impact.
- Two more were written in Jan. 1943.
- The last was written in Feb. 1943.
- The last three were known as "Leaflets of the Resistance."
- They were sent all over Germany through a network of students and medics in Hamburg, Freiburg, Berlin, and Vienna.
- Hans and Alex were the founding members and wrote the first four leaflets.
- Willi wrote the fifth and got supplies for the documents (they were mimeographed).
- Sophie got stamps and took care of financial affairs.
- Kurt Huber wrote the sixth and seventh. (Hans helped with the seventh.)
- In Feb. 1943 Hans, Alex, and Willi painted "Down with Hitler," "Hitler Mass Murder," and "Freedom" on buildings.
- Feb. 18, 1943, Hans and Sophie went to the University to distribute more leaflets, but the two were caught by Jakob Schmidt, a janitor.
- They were executed Feb. 22, 1943. Sophie left behind the word "freedom" in her cell, and Hans said, "Hold out in defiance of despotism."
- Other members were arrested and executed too.
Students also summarized each leaflet.
Bibliography of "The White Rose"
"Hans Scholl." Leaflets of the White Rose. 15 May 2003. http://www.jlrweb.com/whiterose/hans.html
This article has information on Hans Scholl.
"Leaflets of the White Rose 1-6." May 13, 2003. http://www.jlrweb.com/whiterose/leaflets.html
This Web site has the pamphlets of the White Rose.
Resistance during the Holocaust. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
This booklet had a lot of information on all resistance during the Holocaust, and it has a section on the White Rose.
Scholl, Inge. The White Rose. Hanover, New Hampshire: Wesleyan University Press, 1983.
This book, written by Hans and Sophie Scholl’s sister, tells the whole story of the White Rose, plus it also includes copies of the White Rose pamphlets and the transcripts of their trials.
"Sophie Scholl." 15 May 2003. http://www.jlrweb.com/whiterose/sophie.html
This article has information on Sophie Scholl.
"The White Rose." 15 May 2003. http://www.jlrweb.com/whiterose/html
This Web site has information and pictures on the White Rose.