Ambassador Rice joined President Barack Obama’s cabinet in January. She had earlier served as co-chair of the presidential transition team’s policy working group on national security and before that as a senior advisor for national security affairs on the Obama presidential campaign. Previously, as a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, 2002–2009, she specialized on U.S. foreign policy, transnational security threats, weak states, global poverty, and development. During the administration of President William J. Clinton, Ambassador Rice served at the White House as Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, 1997–2001, where she formulated and implemented overall U.S. policy for 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including political, economic, security, and humanitarian issues. She previously served as Special Assistant to President Clinton and Senior Director for African Affairs at the National Security Council, 1995–1997, and as Director for International Organizations and Peacekeeping on the National Security Council staff, 1993–1995.